Something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work; extrinsic rewards include pay increases,praise, and promotions.
Studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques.
Studies,begun by Frederick Taylor,of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to a task.
principle of motion economy
Theory developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions.
The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety,social,and esteem needs to self-actualization needs.
In Herzberg's theory of motivating factors,job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction.
In Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased.
A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the wroker through the job itself.
A job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment.
The idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated by organizational conditions.
management by objectives (MBO)
A system of goal setting and implementation that involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers,supervisors, and employees.
Victor Vroom's theory that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome.
Theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways.