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The impulses related to acute pain are usually transmitted by

myelinated A delta fiber

In which structure do pain impulses ascend the spinal cord?

the spinothalamic tract

According to the gate-control theory, passage of pain impulses may be naturally blocked

at the synapse by entry of other sensory impulses

What is the term used to describe the degree of pain that is endured before an individual takes action?

pain tolerance

What is the definition of endorphins?

opiate-like blocking agents in the central nervous system

Pain perceived in the left arm during the course of a heart attack is an example of

referred pain

What is a common analgesic administered to control a moderate level of pain?

codeine

Which of the following applies to spinal anesthesia?

The drug is injected into CSF or the epidural space of the spinal cord

Which of the following occurs frequently with acute pain but not with chronic pain?

stress response

Which of the following statements is characteristic of alcohol? It

may cause congenital defects in infants born to alcoholic mothers

What is a common indication of substance abuse?

behavioral change

When an increased dosage of a drug causes toxic effects, it is called

overdose

Synergism can cause an emergency situation when

a combination of alcohol and drugs has been taken

Which of the following apply to abuse of anabolic steroids? They

often cause permanent damage to the cardiovascular system

Which of the following are considered to be the toxic effects of a drug?

serious, possibly life-threatening effects

What is the official name assigned to a specific drug for worldwide use?

generic name

Which is the route of administration by which the largest proportion of the drug dose is likely lost before reaching the site of action?

oral

Ingesting a drug with a large meal would likely

delay the absorption of the drug into the blood

What is the reaction called when two drugs interact to produce a result much greater that the sum of individual effects?

synergism

At which site are most drugs metabolized and prepared for excretion?

liver

In traditional Asian medicine, acupoints are usually located

on designated meridians

Traditional drug or surgical therapy is incorporated with nontraditional methods by

osteopaths

What are the first priorities in the assessment of a patient in an emergency situation?

level of consciousness and respiratory function

Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?

decreased hematocrit

Following hemolysis, which part of the hemoglobin molecule produces bilirubin?

heme

Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the

smaller amount of recycled iron available

Which of the following best describes the characteristics erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?

megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells

What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?

deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis

Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?

The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood

What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia?

excessive bleeding and recurrent infections

Which of the following applies to sickle-cell trait?

sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia

Which of the following is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?

pernicious anemia

In case of polycythemia vera, blood pressure is elevated due to

increased blood volume

Which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A?

hematomas and hemarthroses are common

Which of the following substances is classified as an anticoagulant?

heparin

Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because

many circulating leukocytes are immature

Predisposing factors to leukemia commonly include

exposure to radiation

What is the primary treatment for the leukemias?

chemotherapy

Thalassemia is caused by

a defect in one or more genes for hemoglobin

Which of the following diagnostic tests would be within the normal range for an individual with hemophilia A?

bleeding time

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