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Richland College Chapters 6-10 Multiple Choice & Vocabulary

tariff

a duty on trade, the purpose of which is primarily to regulate the flow of commerce rather than raise revenue.

tax

A duty of trade (known as external taxation) or duty on items circulating within a nation or a colony (known as internal taxation), intended primarily to raise revenue rather than to regulate the flow of commerce

the Opposition

A diverse group of political thinkers and writers in Great Britain who elaborated the tradition of classical republicanism from the late seventeenth century through the eighteenth century

classical republicanism

the view emphasizing that all rulers need to be watched due to a tendency for power to corrupt human nature

virtual representation

the view that representation is not linked to election but rather to common interest

actual representation

the view that the people can be represented only by a person whom they have actually elected to office

committees of correspondence

the strategy devised by Samuel Adams in 1772 to rally popular support among American colonials against British imperial policies

William Pitt

Veteran politician who directed the British war effort in the latter part of the Seven Years War; a later advocate for colonial rights

Pontiac

Ottawa chief who organized an Indian rebellion, leading attacks against British forts ans settlements

loyalist

A supporter of the king and Parliament and known to the rebels as a Tory

militia

A local defense band of civilians that included men between the ages of 16 and 65, whose only military training consisted of occasional gatherings known as musters

partisan warfare

Armed clashes among political rivals, typically involving guerrilla fighting and the violent intimidation of civilians by militias

Lord Cornwallis

British military leader and subordinate to Clinton; in charge of the war efforts in the South; he surrendered to rebel forces at Yorktown

William Howe

British general charged in part with overseeing the war effort; captured Philadelphia in 1777

Horatio Gates

Rebel army commander in charge of the Continental forces that triumphed over Burgoyne, taking his entire army

Nathanael Greene

Rebel military commander given control of the war in the South; divided his army in order to divide and weaken the British army

constitution

government's framework established the contract between rulers and ruled

landed states

states during the Confederation period that possessed grants whose western boundaries were not fixed

landless states

states during the Confederation period that had firmly drawn boundaries on all sides

peculiar institution

A euphemism for slavery

republican motherhood

The redefined women's role promoted by many American reformers in the 1780s and 1790s who believed that the success of republican government depended on educated and independent-minded mothers

separation of powers

The principle that each branch of government--- the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary--- should wield distinct powers independent from interference or infringement by other branches of government

federalism

A governing principle established by the Constitution in which the national government and the states divide power

checks and balances

The mechanism by which each branch of government--- keeps the others within bounds of their constitutional authority

seduction literature

Books and other print media offering tales designed to inspire young women to preserve their sexual purity

excise tax

An internal tax placed on the production or dale of a commodity, usually a luxury or nonessential item

semi-subsistence

An economy in which individuals and families produce most of what they need to live

commercial ecomony

An economy in which individuals are involved in a network of markets and commercial transaction

barter economy

Networks of trade based on the mutual exchange of goods and services with little or no use of coin currency

suffrage

the right to vote

naturalization

The act of granting full citizenship to someone born outside the country

judicial review

The doctrine set out by Chief Justice John Marshall in the Marbury v. Madison; the judicial branch of the federal government possesses the power to determine whether the laws of Congress or the actions of the executive branch violate the Constitution

cede

to give up possession of

embargo

A government act prohibiting trade with a foreign country or countries, usually to exert economic pressure

assumption

Alexander Hamilton's policy of having the federal government take responsibility for the war debts of the states

corporation

A business that has been granted a charter granting it legal rights, privileges, and liabilities distinct from the individual members that are a part of it

journeyman

A person who has served an apprenticeship in a trade or craft, and who is qualified worker employed by another person

paternalism

An attitude or policy of trading individuals or groups in a fatherly manner by providing for their needs without granting them rights of responsibilities

social mobility

The movement of individuals from one social class to another

boom-bust cycle

A period of expansion and recession or depression that an economy goes through

Samuel F.B. Morse

Inventor of the telegraph, which brought about a revolution in communications

John Marshall

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835; presided over a number of important decisions on federal power and economic policy

Sam Patch

Famous waterfall jumper who became a popular symbol for factory workers

The Seven Years' War pitted Britain against France in a struggle to control what region of North America?

Ohio Country

Whose defeat at the makeshift defensive structure known as Fort Necessity began the Seven Years' War?

George Washington

What impact did the Albany Plan of Union have?

It was rejected by the colonies and had no impact.

Whose defeat at Québec effectively ended the Seven Years' War on the continent of North America?

the marquis de Montcalm

William Pitt was

both the organizer of British victory in the Seven Years' War, and relatively sympathetic to American protests during the years after the Seven Years' War.

The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Britain title to all French claims

east of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida.

At the end of the Seven Years' War, the Americans ________, while the British ________.

celebrated their contributions to victory; voiced contempt for American soldiering and suspicions of American self-interest

Regarding the consequences of the Seven Years' War that led to the rift between the colonies and England, which of the following is NOT correctly stated?

The French and Indian threats were removed, so the British government felt they had no need to keep troops in the colonies.

After the Seven Years' War, Britain kept several thousand troops in the colonies for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

to enforce the Proclamation of 1763 by providing protection to colonials settling west of the Appalachians.

What was the basic British policy after 1763?

to consolidate their gains

Who organized a combined uprising of the western tribes in the aftermath of the French defeat?

Pontiac

Which of the following was NOT among British "new measures" after the end of the Seven Years' War?

a new, higher tax—more effectively enforced—on imports of British goods like glass and tea

Americans insisted that they be taxed by their own assemblies because they held to John Locke's dictum,

that property guarantees liberty.

The writers of the English "Opposition" or "Country Party" believed all of the following EXCEPT that

Parliament must be controlled by the monarchs and their ministers, because politicians could not be trusted.

The Sons of Liberty, emerging in the Stamp Act protest, drew their members from the ranks of

traders, lawyers, and prosperous artisans.

In resisting the Stamp Act, Americans affirmed all of the following EXCEPT their

belief in virtual representation.

In the Declaratory Act, Parliament

left unclear the extent of its authority in America.

Which of the following British leaders actually supported the colonists' objections to taxation by Parliament?

William Pitt

The sloop Liberty, whose seizure prompted several thousand angry Bostonians to rough up customs officials and a night of violent rioting, was owned by which wealthy Boston merchant?

John Hancock

After 1768, the presence of freedom fighters in many European countries had which of the following effects upon resistance groups in America?

Resistance groups increasingly thought of themselves as part of a transatlantic network of the friends of liberty.

What was new in American resistance to the Townshend duties?

institutionalized mechanisms for enforcing non-importation

Parliament repealed all of the Townshend duties except the tax on tea because

it was a source of revenue and symbol of Parliament's authority.

The Tea Act of 1773

gave the East India company a monopoly on the American tea trade.

The ________ Act allowed the housing of British troops in uninhabited private homes, outlying buildings, and barns.

Quartering

When they learned of the Coercive Acts of 1774, many Americans concluded that a plot to enslave the colonies was being implemented by

the king's ministers and Parliament, but not George III.

History, colonials believed, proved liberty could be lost to the designs of corrupt politicians through a succession of usurpations including all of the following EXCEPT

denying the opportunity for ordinary folk to strive for the luxuries and comforts enjoyed by the better sort.

The First Continental Congress, in late 1774,

denied Parliament's right to tax and legislate for the colonies (while acknowledging its authority to regulate their trade), and set up a trade boycott.

Which of the following is NOT an example of how the colonies were beginning to seize authority a year before the Declaration of Independence, during early 1775?

Many colonial leaders increasingly issued explicit calls for full independence.

Which of the following was NOT argued by Thomas Paine in Common Sense?

Parliament had deliberately and wickedly brought about all of America's misfortunes.

What did Thomas Paine call the new era of politics that was dawning with the American fight for liberty?

the age of republicanism

The chapter introduction tells the story of the Battle of Bunker Hill to make the point that

a key question in that battle and throughout the war was whether Americans would really fight to win their independence.

During the first year of the Revolution, American war aims shifted from a desire for redress of grievances to a demand for complete independence. All of the following influenced this shift, EXCEPT

Washington's refusal to command the Continental Army until independence was declared.

Which of these was NOT among the actions taken by the Continental Congress, before the Declaration of Independence, that seemed to be the actions of an independent government?

dealing with Canada

The Declaration of Independence based the case for independence on

George III's infringements on American liberty.

The first, briefer section of the Declaration of Independence dealt with ________, while the second section included ________.

the general right of revolution based on natural rights; the specific offenses of King George III by which England forfeited its right to rule Americans

What was the most dominant common characteristic among the diverse group of people who remained loyal to Britain?

They were fearful of divisions and instability within American society.

The ranks of loyalists included

a large number of recent emigrants from the British Isles.

What event helped overcome republican fears of a standing Continental Army?

the dwindling number of "citizen-soldier" volunteers

George Washington's desire to create a professional military establishment

was at first undermined by the republican fear of standing armies.

At first, the bulk of the Continental Army was recruited from the ________, but eventually most Continental soldiers were ________.

militias; drawn from the poorest and least free

After evacuating Boston, the British army took the initiative, launching a successful assault on

New York City.

The Continental Army gained a key victory over the British at ________, which demonstrated its ability as a fighting force and won support for its cause in the region.

Trenton

The initial fighting in the war occurred in New England; most engagements in the two years after the Declaration of Independence took place in ________; and the conflict in the later war years raged across ________.

the middle states (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania); the Carolinas and Virginia

What tactical goal did General Howe have in mind when he captured Philadelphia in the summer of 1777?

to draw the Americans into battle

Which of the following does NOT describe the American relationship with the French?

The French offered an overt alliance in hopes they could regain their lost North American possessions.

"Saratoga changed everything," says your text, referring to which of the following?

Britain's defeat led to a treaty of alliance with France, opening a new phase of the war.

Which of the following best explains why the French fought against Britain in the American Revolution?

They feared that the Americans would reconcile with Britain, their historic enemy.

Despite great triumphs on the battlefield and at the diplomatic bargaining table, the Continental Army suffered at Valley Forge because

Congress and the civilians responsible for providing for the Army were disorganized and corrupt.

Which statement about the regulars of the Continental Army is true?

In social composition and military tactics, the American army came to resemble the British army.

In the war for independence, most Native Americans

were pressed by the European powers to become allies.

The British shifted to a southern strategy after 1778 because

they felt they could exploit loyalist support.

For the southern backcountry, the Revolutionary War meant

bitter, bloody, partisan civil war.

The slave revolts so dreaded by southern whites never materialized during the fight in the South. Which of the following is a possible reason this was the case?

The British encouraged escape and enlistment in the British army instead of an uprising against their masters.

What was the role of African Americans in the Revolution?

As the war dragged on, blacks—especially northern free blacks—were increasingly welcome to enlist.

George Washington's victory at Yorktown came as a joint achievement of the Continental Army and

All these answers are correct.

Which is the best statement of why the British signed the peace treaty granting American independence?

The timing of the occasional American victories led to a global situation where the British needed to salvage the rest of their empire by cutting their American losses.

In the end, what is the best answer to this question posed by the British: Would Americans fight for freedom?

Yes, but only on their own terms.

Though the Continental Army lost many conventional battles in the South, the British could not restore political control over the backcountry. Why?

the resilience of the rebel militias

During the Revolutionary War, slaves sought freedom

from whichever side seemed likely to grant it.

A fundamental question at the outset of the Revolution was, "Will they fight?" Different individuals answered this in different ways. Which of the following does NOT accurately state one of the responses?

Most middle-class American revolutionaries preferred to join the Continental Army, rather than merely become part of their local militias.

The chapter introduction discusses the dilemma of citizens identifying with state and nation after the Revolution to make the point that

Americans had to experiment to find a way to create a united republic that confronted the realities of separate identities and inequalities.

The constitutions written by the states provided several important precedents for the later federal system created by the Constitution of 1787. One of the most important was the principle of

creating a written document as supreme law.

What document was essentially a continuation of the Second Continental Congress?

the Articles of Confederation

When peace was restored in the 1780s, Americans were forced to face some unanswered questions raised by their revolution. Which of the following was NOT among their questions?

None is a correct answer, because all these questions were among those raised by the revolution.

Following the revolution, while most states did not alter the basic structure of their governments, they did alter the balance of power among the different branches of government. Which of the following did they NOT do?

abolished the state legislative assemblies

The first state constitutions tried to make the government accountable to the people through

annual elections and representation by district.

America's first governing document was called the

Articles of Confederation.

The Articles of Confederation provided for a government by

national legislature.

What is the best description of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation?

thirteen independent state republics loosely joined together under a virtually powerless representative body

Which of the following was NOT a weakness of Congress under the Articles of Confederation?

It could not declare war or regulate Indian affairs.

The two most pressing problems for the new nation, which neither the states nor the Confederation Congress could solve, were

divisions between the states, and border disputes with Britain and Spain.

Immediately after the Revolution, the United States began to have difficulties with Spain. The disputes related to the boundaries of Florida and

navigation rights on the Mississippi.

One of the chief controversies that delayed initial ratification of the Articles of Confederation turned out to be the one area of substantial achievement by the Confederation Congress. This related to

western lands.

Why did the expansion of backcountry districts create a more democratic membership in state legislatures?

They were less developed economically, and their leading men were less rich.

The Northwest Ordinance, which established a basis for territorial government for lands between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, included all of the following provisions EXCEPT

protection of civil and political rights for Indians.

Which of the following is NOT a true statement concerning African Americans following the Revolution?

The number of blacks in slavery quickly declined dramatically.

In American society after the Revolution, people believed more and more in ________, while in reality many parts of society were becoming ________.

equality; unequal

Republican ideology viewed what as the key to independence and power?

Property

The state of New Jersey created legislation in 1807 to close what loophole?

landowning women's suffrage

The most significant reform of the republican campaign against artificial privilege was the

dismantling of state-supported churches.

"Seduction literature" sent the unmistakable message that young women must preserve their

sexual purity.

The Society of Cincinnati, a veterans' club for former Continental Army officers, attracted criticism because it

was perceived as aristocratic.

What was the most important result of the uprising of western Massachusetts debtor farmers led by Daniel Shays?

It gave crucial momentum to the growing movement to strengthen the national government.

Which of the following leaders shaped the framing of the federal Constitution more than anyone else?

James Madison

The delegates to the Constitutional Convention, though from twelve different states, had two important things in common. These were that they were

All men of considerable political experience, who recognized the need for a stronger national union.

The Constitutional Convention deadlocked until it could find a compromise solution to the issue of

representation in Congress.

How did James Madison imagine that a federal republic with a strong central government might work, especially one that governed such a vast land area as that of the United States?

He believed that various interests and factions would cancel each other out in a large republic, and that virtuous national leaders would govern on behalf of all the people.

The Federalist Papers presented strong and convincing arguments in favor of

adopting the Constitution of 1787.

In the debates over ratification, a major fear of the Anti-Federalists was that

the most powerful groups in society would dominate and eventually rule in a corrupt and arbitrary fashion.

In the debates over ratification, the Federalists argued that the Constitution

would protect the nation from itself by providing a system of checks and balances.

The chapter introduction tells the story of the controversial whiskey tax of 1791 to make the point that

there were underlying uncertainties about whether the new government could really unite such a diverse people.

In the semisubsistence economy that existed in the American backcountry, money was seldom seen and was used primarily to

pay taxes and purchase imported goods.

A chief characteristic of a commercial economy was that it required

the availability of relatively cheap transportation.

As the new nation's first president, Washington lamented that nearly all of his actions while in office would

establish a model for those that followed.

Which of the following was NOT one of the goals of Alexander Hamilton's financial proposals?

stimulate the essentially virtuous nature of ordinary citizens, who could take advantage of new economic opportunities

Hamilton proposed to define the national debt in a way that increased what the nation had to pay. What two pressing financial problems did this seek to solve?

revenue and credit

Which of these contributed to the emergence of true popular political parties in the U.S.?

All these answers are correct.

As war broke out in Europe, the Washington administration

asserted the right to steer a path of neutrality.

How did foreign policy issues accelerate the emergence of political parties in the U.S.?

Divided over whether France represented republicanism or anarchy, the two sides came to suspect the worst intentions of the other and organized parties against each other.

Jay's Treaty

secured the evacuation of British troops from the Northwest.

Washington's farewell address

warned against the dangers of parties and called for a restoration of unity in the national political system.

Jefferson's Republican party

appealed to fears of commerce and urbanization.

The Federalist party

wanted to use government power to promote commerce and industry.

In the XYZ Affair,

French officials demanded a bribe to open negotiations with the United States.

The Alien and Sedition Acts were used primarily

to weaken the Republican party.

According to the doctrine established in the landmark Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison, the

high court could rule on the constitutionality of federal laws.

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