Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants
tissue between the dermal tissue and vascular tissue of a non-woody plant that functions in photosynthesis, storage, and support
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differntiated cell type.
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.
A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plants without restraining growth.
A water-conducting and supportive element of xylem composed of long, thin cells with tapered ends and walls hardened with lignin.
A specialized short, wide cell in angiosperms; arranged end to end, they form continuous tubes for water transport.
Sieve Tube Elements
found in phloem; stacked end to end; have holes so materials can get in and out of the phloem
Phloem cells. Surround sieve tube elements to aid transport.
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in plants that produces cork cells to replace the epidermis during secondary growth
The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
network of hyphae and plant roots that helps plants absorb water and minerals from soil
water pressure exerted on a cell wall
Limp. A walled cell is flaccid in surroundings where there is no tendency for water to enter.
the contraction or shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution in response to the loss of water by osmosis
Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.
In plants, the continuum of cell walls plus the extracellular spaces.
in plants, the continuum of cytoplasm connected by plasmodesmata between cells.
a transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane
A water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
The upward push of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots.
The exudation of water droplets, caused by root pressure in certain plants.
When water molecules evaporate from open stomata, the next water molecules in the column (xylem) tend to move up and replace them, and in turn, pull up the water molecules below them.
A plant organ in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis or the breakdown of starch. Mature leaves are the primary sugar sources of plants.
A plant organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar. Growing roots, shoot tips, stems, and fruit are sugar sinks supplied by phloem.
A type of mycorrhizae in which the mycelium forms a dense sheath, or mantle, over the surface of the root. Hyphae extend from the mantle into the soil, greatly increasing the surface area for water and mineral absorption.
A flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.
A flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs (sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels) are either absent or nonfunctional.
smaller of the two types of spore produced in heterosporous plants
slender tubular outgrown from a pollen grain that penetrates the ovule and releases male gametes
larger of the two types of spore produced in heterosporous plants
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes
nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.
the uptake of water due to the low water potential of the dry seed
the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant
having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal
having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals
the mechanism by which the stigma of a flower recognizes pollen from the same plant and prevents fertilization from taking place
Plant growth in response to light
a change in the growth of a plant in response to gravity
the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age
response of plants to periods of light and darkness
form flowers when the days become shorter than a critical length. Bloom in late summer or autumn in middle latitudes.
form flowers when the days become longer than a critical length. Bloom in spring and early summer.
A directional growth of a plant in response to touch.