7th gr life science ch 1 exploring and classifying life

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46 terms · 7th gr life science ch1 exploring and classifying life

binominal nomenclature

two-word naming system that gives all organisms their scientific name

biogenesis

theory that living things come only from other living things

cell

smallest unit of an organism that can carry on life functions; has an orderly structure and contains hereditary material

control

standard to which the outcome of a test is compared

genus

first word of the two-word scientific name used to identify a group of similar species

homeostasis

maintaining the proper conditions inside an organism

hypothesis

prediction that can be tested

kingdom

first and largest category used to classify organisms

law

statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true consistently

organism

any living thing

phylogeny

evolutionary history of an organism; used today to group organisms into six kingdoms

scientific methods

organized procedures used to solve problems that can include (1) stating the problem, (2) gathering information, (3) forming a hypothesis, (4) testing the hypothesis with an experiment, (5) analyzing data, (6) drawing conclusions, and (7) report results.

spontaneous generation

early theory that living things come from nonliving things; was disproved by Louis Pasteur in the 1800's

theory

explanation of things or events based on scientific knowledge resulting from many observations and experiments

variable

something in an experiment that can change

organized

what all living things are

response

they way an organism reacts to a stimulus, often results in movement

stimulus

anything that causes change in an organism

energy

what all living things use

develop

all things grow and ___________

number of cells

growth of many-celled organisms are due to an increase of ______________

size of cells

growth of one-celled organisms is due to an increase in ______________

development

changes that take place during the life of an organism

reproduce

when living things make more of themselves

place to live and raw materials

what all living things need to live

place to live

provides for all of the organism's needs

raw materials

water, proteins, fats, and sugars

Aristotle

classified organisms more than 2,000 years ago

Carolus Linnaeus

introduced a classification system based on similar structures of organisms

species

smallest classification category

fertile offspring

what organisms that belong to the same species can mate and produce

what a species looks like, where it is found, or who discovered it

what the second word in the name of a species that tells about that species

scientific names

used to avoid mistakes, show that organisms in the same genus are related, give descriptive info, and allow information to be organized easily

field guides

descriptions and illustrations of organisms

dichotomous keys

detailed lists of identifying characteristics that include scientific names

meters

measures length

liters

measures volume

grams, tonne

measures mass

5 characteristics of living things

living things are organized, respond, use energy, grow & develop, and reproduce

Francesco Redi

in 1668 showed maggots hatch from eggs that flies lay on meat and not from the meat itself

John Needham

in 1745 mistakenly concluded that microorganisms spontaneously developed

Lazzaro Spallanzani

in 1768 designed an experiment to show that tiny organisms came from other organisms

Louis Pasteur

in 1859 disproved spontaneous generation

Alexander I. Oparin

in 1924 created theory "primordial soup" that the gases in Earth's early atmosphere combined to form more complex compounds found in living things.

gases in Oparin's theory

ammonia, hydrogen, methane, and water vapor

Stanley Miller and Harold Urey

in 1953 tested Oparin's hyposthesis and showed that chemicals found in living things could be produced

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