basic rights that governments should protect, Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
Those rights that are a part of the human condition, they cannot be taken away or given away.
Consent of the governed
People are the source of the government's power, they give their consent by casting their vote.
European way of thinking that inspired the notion of natural rights
Enlightenment philosopher who's ideas about natural rights and the social contract are reflected in the Declaration of Independence
Declaration Of Independence
The foundational document of the American view of government. It provides a set of philosophies of government, rather than a blueprint for government.
The Social Contract
Locke's ideas that governments exist to protect the natural rights of the people. Governments get their power to rule from the people, and If the government fails to protect the rights of the people they must alter or abolish that form of government.
An agreement to work together in the colonies for the good of all.
House of Burgesses
A legislature in Virginia that had it's members directly elected by the citizens.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
The first state constitution in the United States
New England Town Meetings
A form of pure democracy practiced in the New England colonies. Allowed each citizen to have his voice heard on important decisions.
Weak Central government
What the Articles of Confederation made by design to prevent abuses by the central government
The Articles of Confederation
The 1st Constitution for the United States. It created a loose alliance of 13 nation-states
A common feature of both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Law passed under the Articles of Confederation that provided a way for new states to enter into the union,provided for public education,and outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory
Strong Executive and Court system
elements of government lacking under the Articles of Confederation
The law making branch of government, a common feature of both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution
The branch of government responsible for enforcing our nations laws, absent from the Articles of Confederation.
The branch of government responsible for interpreting our nations laws and establishing a uniform system of justice. Absent from the Articles of Confederation
The idea that all government should be limited by law.
The states with limited populations that demanded equal representation in Congress to the more populous states
The states with large populations that demanded representation in Congress based on the size of their population.
An organized structure for a government that spreads power out between the national government and the states
Formal written changes to the Constitution
The Supreme Court can determine if laws are unconstitutional or not
The Federalist Papers
A series of essays published in New York Newspapers defending the Constitution as it was originally drafted. They were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay.
The pen name used by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay when writing the Federalist Papers
Checks and Balances
The feature of the Constitution that allows each branch of the federal government the power to check or control the powers of the other two, so that no one branch becomes too powerful.
A legislature having two houses
A legislature having one house
The division of the power of government between the national government and the states
The powers that belong to the states.
The Powers that belong to the national government
The powers that are shared by both the national governments and the states
The Great Compromise
Roger Sherman's proposal creating a bicameral legislature to solve the dispute over representation between the large states and the small states
The compromise that allowed the southern states to count 3/5's of the slave population for representation in the House. It resolved the dispute between the North and the South over representation.
The Virginia Plan
Madison's plan for government with 3 branches, Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. The Legislative branch would be bicameral with representation based on a state's population
New Jersey Plan
William Patterson's plan for government. Similar in structure to the Virginia plan. The Legislative branch, however would be unicameral with equal representation for all states regardless of population
The idea that citizens elect fellow citizens to represent their interests and needs in government
Those who opposed ratifying the Constitution because it lacked a bill of rights, and it gave too much power to the national government
Supporters of the Constitution as it was originally drafted. They did not believe that the Constitution granted the National government any ability to violate the rights of citizens
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution that protect the Civil Liberties of citizens of the United States
Delegate to the Continental Congress from Massachusetts who was strongly in favor of declaring independence from England. He was one of the 5 members of the committee assigned to write the Declaration of Independence.
Delegate to the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania. He strongly favored declaring independence from England. He suggested that Richard Henry Lee of Virginia propose declaring independence to influence the southern colonies to support declaring independence. He was a member of the committee assigned to write the Declaration of Independence.
Delegate from Virginia to the Continental Congress, member of the committee assigned to write the Declaration of Independence. Primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
Delegate from New York to the Continental Congress, member of the committee assigned to write the Declaration of Independence.
Delegate from Connecticut to the Continental Congress, member of the committee assigned to write the Declaration of Independence.
President of the Continental Congress from Massachusetts. The first man to sign the Declaration of Independence. He signed his name in large bold letters so that King George could be sure to see who signed it.
Delegate to the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania who opposed declaring independence from England. He refused to sign the Declaration of Independence, but remained loyal to the United States by serving in the Continental Army in defense of the nation.
the vast territory of land that included present-day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin; was politically organized by the Northwest Ordinance of 1785.
The Land Ordinance of 1785
This ordinance required new townships to set aside a parcel of land for public education and stipulated that the sale of public lands would be used to pay off the national debt. The settlement of the Old Northwest would thus be orderly in contrast to relatively unorganized settlement in the South.
a set of basic principles that determines the powers and duties of a government
a form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
a type of government in which its functions and powers are prescribed, limited, and restricted by law
the right to vote
a government tax on imports or exports
trade between two or more states
Increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
People who owe money
People who lend money
a long-term economic state characterized by high unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives up some of what it wants
A formal change to the Constitution