Mantzke Biology 2nd sementer Freshman

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Biology freshman 2nd semester

amoeba

a protist that moves using flexible cytoplasmic extensions

angiosperm

seed plant that produces reproductive structures in flowers and seed within a fruit

arthropod

member of the phylum Arthropoda which includes invertebrate animals such as insects crustaceans and srachnids

bacillus

rod shaped bacterium

carnivore

flesh eating organism

chromatid

one of a pair of strands of DNA that make up a chromosome during meiosis or mitosis

Chromosome

structure made of DNA and associated proteins on which genes are located

class

taxonomic category containing orders with common characteristics

coccus

spherical shaped bacterium

conjugation

temporary union of two organisms to exchange nuclear material

crossing over

the exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by homologous chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis source of genetic recombination

cytokinesis

division of the cytophasm to form two separate cells

diploid

term used to indicate a cell containing two sets of chromosomes one set inherited from each parent

ectothermic

refering to an animal whose body temperature is determined by the temperature of the environment

exoskeleton

hard external covering of some invertebrates

family

taxonomic category containing genera with similar properties

fertilization

the process by which haploid gametes join to form a diploid zygote

flower

reproductive structure of angiosperms produces pollen in the anthers of stamens and seeds in a fruit the mature ovary of a pistil

fruit

structure that contains one or more seeds and develops from the ovary of the pistil of a flower

gamete

haploid cell that participates in fertiliazation by fusing with another haploid cell

gametophyte

haploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternations of generations haploid individual that produces gametes

gene

section of a chromosome that codes for protein or RNA molecule

genetics

study of heredity

genotype

the genetic makeup of an organism as indicated by its set of alleles

gymnosperm

seed plant that produces seeds that do not develop withing a fruit

haploid

having only one set of chromosomes

herbivore

organism that eats only plants or algae

heredity

transmission of genetic traits from parent to off spring

hermaphrodite

organism with both testes and ovaries

heterozygous

refers to an individual with two different alleles for a trait

homologous chromosome

a member of a chromosome pair both of which are similar in shape, size and the genes they carry

homozygous

refers to an individual with two identical alleles for a trait

hypha

slender filament that is part of the body of a multicelular fungus

incomplete dominace

condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of its two parents

kingdom

taxonomic category that contains phyla with similar characteristics

lichen

symbiotic association between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium

Malpighian tubele

slender fingerlike organ of excretion that opens into the gut of certain arthropods

meiosis

process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell completes two successive dibisions that produce four cells gametes each with a chromosome number that has been reduced by half

mitosis

process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei each with the same number and kind of chromosomes

monohybrid cross

cross involving one pair of contrasting traits

multiple alleles

the existence of more than two alleles versions of the gene for a genetic trait

nonvascular plant

plant that does not have a vascular system

omnivore

animal that eats both plants and animals

oogenesis

process by which gametes are produced in female animals

order

taxonomic category consisting of rfamilies with similar characteristics

pathogen

a disease causing agent

phenotype

observable characteristics of an organism

phylum

a taxonomic category containing classes with similar characteristics

polygenic trait

characteristic of an organism that is influenced by several genes

proglottid

rectangular body section of tapeworms

prokaryote

single celled organism without a nucleus bacterial cell

protist

a member of the kingdom Protista

Punnett square

diagram used by biologists to predict the probable outcome of a genetic cross

radula

rasping tonguelike organ of mollusks uned in obtaining food

sessile

describes an organism that remains attached to a surfact for its entire life

sex linked trait

a trait that is determined by a gene found on the x chromosome

species

group of organisms that look alike and are capable of producing fertile offspring in nature

spermatogenesis

process by which gametes are produced in male animals

sporophyte

diploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation of generations diploid individual that produces spores

taxonomy

science of naming and classifying organisms

virus

a strand of nucleic acid encased in a protein coat that can infect cells and replicate within them

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