What was the cause of the rage of Achilles?
He felt dishonored because the woman he had won as spoils of war had been taken from him. He later also grieved the death of his friend Patroclus.
Greek heroic ideal
The values of honor, glory, and arete exemplified in the Iliad
Honor in the Iliad
The public esteem of one's fellow warriors in this life.
Virtue, manly pride, excellence, achievement of one's potential, soldierly valor, the essential quality of a noble man.
Among the Greeks, it means "portion" or "division." Has the sense of one's portion in life, what is one's due. Also means the will of Zeus.
Where did Hector expect to find Andromache?
at his sister's house or the shrine of Athena
Why might Andromache wish to placate the goddess Athena?
she was the god who worked on the side of the Achaeans
Where had Andromache gone?
to the Scaean Gates
"Reckless one, my Hector - your own fiery courage will destroy you!"
Which Greek virtue does this represent?
"(Hector) burned his corpse in all his blazoned bronze, then heaped a grave-mound high above the ashes." Which Greek virtue does this represent?
respect for the dead
Why did Andromache say that Hector is now her father, mother and brother, too?
She had lost all her family at the hands of Achilles
For what reason would Hector "die of shameto face the men of Troy?"
if he would shrink from battle, a coward
What is the reward for "standing up bravely, always to fight in the front ranks of Trojan soldiers?"
What is the most painful thought of all for Hector?
that Andromache will be carried off in tears, "wrenching away her day of light and freedom."
What was Hector's young son afraid of?
"the flashing bronze, the horsehair crest, the great ridge of the helmet nodding, bristling terror"
What does Hector say "no man alive can escape?"
When Andromache returned to her home, what did she find?
women gathered , stirred "to a high pitch of mourning", raising dirges for the dead, though Hector was till alive
When Apollo taunts Achilles, what does he tell the hero what will never be his (Apollo's) fate?
Priam says that it's fine and noble if a young man goes down in war. What does he say is "the cruelest sight in all our wretched lives?"
when an old man is killed and "the dogs go at the gray head."
"but he (Priam) could not shake the fixed resolve of Hector."
"the one who fled was great, but the one pursuing greater, even greater." Why is Achilles regarded as greater than Hector?
For the Greeks, courage and honor, resulting in glory, are the highest virtues and Achilles is unwavering
Why does Zeus' "heart grieve for Hector?"
Hector offered many sacrifices to him
Why is Athena angry with Zeus?
Hector's fate was sealed long ago
Which god fights for Hector?
What is Athena's mean trick?
She appears in the guise of Hector's brother, Deiphobus, whom he thinks has come to aid him in combat with Achilles
Why is Hector's promise not to mutilate Achilles' body ironic?
Because, when he kills Hector, Achilles mutilates his body
Hector cried aloud, "My time has come."
"Well let me die..in some great clash of arms that even men to come will hear of down the years."
What was the annual custom of the Athenians in the time of Pericles?
an public funeral for the first to die in war
When Pericles speaks of the "courage and manliness" of the dead, which Homeric virtue was he referring to?
"By their courage and their virtues" the ancestors have
handed on to the Athenians a free country
What is the "Constitution" according to Pericles?
an unwritten set of political values
In Athens, everyone is equal before the...
How do the Athenians behave toward their neighbors?
free and tolerant
How does Pericles describe the Athenians' appreciation of beauty?
in their homes they find beauty and good taste
Despite their love of beauty and learning, the Athenians are not
What is, according to Pericles, the meaning of manliness?
death in battle, glory
Who does Pericles say the Athenians "put their trust in?"
What two things are "good fortune"?
to end one's life in honor and for others to honorably lament us.
"The last pleasure, when one is worn out with age, is not making money, but..
having the respect of one's fellow man
What is the "glor" of women?
Not to be talked about by men
Why is Greek art said to be "evolutionary?"
it was a process of refinement, working within a long established tradition, and changing slowly
Define "order" in architecture
The combination of architectural elements which appear repeatedly together
What is the origin of the Doric order?
northeast Peloponnese in the 7th c. BC
Describe the Doric column
no base, shallow flutes, simple capital
vertical carved grooves in a column
the horizontal element above the columns; supports frieze
above architrave; contains triglyphs and metopes
three vertical lines in a rectangle; alternates with metopes
the carved or painted rectangular panel between the triglyphs of a doric frieze
projecting molding on building (usually above columns or pillars)
In classical architecture, the triangular space (gable) at the end of a building, formed by the ends of the sloping roof above the colonnade; also, an ornamental feature having this shape.
What is the origin of the Ionic order?
Asia Minor and the Aegean in 7th c. BC
Describe the Ionic capital
tall and thin with elaborately carved bases and capitals with volutes; no frieze
ornament from Ionic capital resembling a rolled scroll
Describe the Corinthian capital
basket shaped covered with acanthus leaves and plant tendrils
Who favored the Corinthian order?
What way of life did Greek architecture serve?
public, communal, outside
Great Roman architect of the time of Augustus (27BC - 14 AD) who wrote 10 books on architecture
the chief room of a Greek temple, where the statue of the god was located and, frequently, the temple's treasure was kept.
The enclosed vestibule of a Greek or Roman temple, found in front of the cella and marked by a row of columns at the entrance.
(n) a religious service or rite; the form of a ritual or other act of public worship
long colonnaded building used as market, magistrates' headquarters, museum, store-room
A kind of theater in ancient Greece, smaller than the dramatic theater and roofed over,
a building which housed the council of citizens (boule) in Ancient Greece.
palaestra or palaistra
a public place in ancient Greece or Rome devoted to the training of wrestlers and other athletes
a sports complex, which also functioned as an important social and educational center in classical Greece
materials used by Greeks for sculpture
marble, bronze, gold, ivory, terracotta, wood
having or exhibiting many colors
How have the names of Greek artists come down to us?
In the writings of Pliny and Pausanius. Also, signatures in stone
How have many Greek masterpieces come down to us?
as Roman copies
Where would you find the sculpural elements on a Doric temple?
the pediments, metopes, apex and corners of roof
What type of scenes is most commonly depicted on Greek temples?
How might the sculptural scenes on the west pediment differ from those on the east pediment of a Greek temple?
West: battle scenes
The statue of the deity that stood in the cella of an ancient temple
A gift of gratitude or an offering made to a deity; often in the form of a small statuette.
Life-size votive statues. An archaic Greek standing statue of a naked male.
Female votive offering with an extended hand; clothed upright statues of women, often of goddesses (generally the Archaic period)
sculpture consisting of shapes carved on a surface so as to stand out from the surrounding background
a stone coffin (usually bearing sculpture or inscriptions)
grave stone, often carved with reliefs
themes displayed on Greek funeral monuments
deceased with family members; battle and hunting scenes, scenes from mythology and epics
High Classical Sculptor; devised mathematical formula for representing the perfect male body; famous work=Doryphoros (bronze statue of young man holding spear)
one of history's greatest sculptors who lived in the golden age. sculped the famous figure the Discus Thrower
sculptor of the Parthenon marbles
a sculptor who lived after Phidias who sculpted figures that were more lifelike and natural in form and size.
court sculptor of Alexander the Great; sculpted slender proportions
Why is pottery a primary dating tool for scholars?
sherds of pottery survive at almost every level and are readily datable
an ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water
black figure style
figures in black glaze on natural clay; details incised
red figure style
natural clay color for figures and glazed background
What was the white ground style reserved for?
funeral monuments and votives at shrines
What themes are represented on Greek pottery?
myths, battle scenes, workshops, sports, dining, revelry, sex
What do we learn about Greek painting from Pliny and Pausanius?
monumental painting was important
Where can one find reasonably well-preserved Greek painting?
in tombs in Macedonia
Why do scholars believe that Pompeii paintings may have been by Greek artists?
similar themes and style; the Romans were active militarily in Macedonia in 2nd c. BC