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What are the general functions of the skin and integumentary system?

1. Protection
2. Regulation of Body Temperature
3. Communication
4. Excretion of Wastes
5. Vitamin D Production

What is the major organ of the integumentary system?

Skin

____ membranes are found lining the nasal cavity, the oral cavity, respiratory tracts and digestive tracts.

Mucous Membranes

Pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal membranes are all examples of ____.

Serous Membranes

What is difference between serous and mucous membranes?

Serous membranes secrete a watery fluid, while mucous membranes secrete a thicker, stickier fluid

____ membranes form the inner linings of joints.

Synovial Membranes

What is another name for cutaneous membrane?

The Skin

The skin consists of what two layers?

Epidermis and Dermis

The deeper layer of skin is known as the ___.

Dermis

____ is the superficial layer of skin.

Epidermis

What is the subcutaneous layer?

layer of connective tissue (adipose and LCT) that binds the skin to underlying structures.

What is another name for the subcutaneous layer?

Hypodermis

List the layers of the epidermis start from the most superficial layer.

Stratum Corneium
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale

Which layer of the epidermis contains the youngest cells?

Stratum Basale

Which layer of the epidermis contains the only cells capable of cellular division?

Stratum Basale

Which layer of the epidermis is only found in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet?

Stratum Lucidum

Which layer of the epidermis contains melanocytes?

Stratum Basale

What are melanocytes?

dark cells which secrete a dark pigment called melanin

What is the function of melanin?

to absorb ultraviolet light and protect us from sunburns

Which layer of the epidermis consists of only dead cells that have been replaced by keratin?

Stratum Corneum

What is the function of the epidermis?

Waterproofing and Protection

Why do cells of the epidermis die as they are pushed closer to the surface?

The cells get farther and farther away from their blood supply.

Which layer of skin contains blood vessels?

Dermis

What type of tissue makes up the dermis?

Connective Tissue

How is the cellular division of the epidermis related to the amount of pressure the cells receive.

More pressure equals higher rate of cellular division

What are four items that affect the color of an individuals skin?

Melanin
Diet
Chemicals
Blood Vessels

What is the function of the hypodermis?

Insulation, Cushion, and Connecting the skin to underlying structures

What is the function of keratin?

Prevents underlying structures from drying out

What accessory organ is responsible for producing goose flesh?

Contraction of arrector pilli muscles

Which accessory organ secretes sebum?

Sebaceous Glands

What is theh function of sebum?

to moisturize the skin and keep the skin soft an pliable.

What is another word for sebum?

oil

What is hair made of?

dead epithelial cells

Which layer of skin houses accessory organs?

Dermis

The active growing part of the hair is the ____

root

____ is a tube-like depression in which the hair grows.

hair follicle

____ are accessory organs that respond to elevated body temperatures

sweat glands

Which gland is usually associated with hair follicles?

sebaceous glands

____ is the portion of hair that extends away from the surface of the skin.

shaft

What causes hair color?

Melanin and Trichosiderin (red)

____ are protective coverings on the tips of the fingers and toes.

nails

Which sweat glands respond to body temperature?

Eccrine Sweat Glands

Which sweat glands function throughout and individuals entire life?

Eccrine Sweat Glands

Which sweat glands secrete a watery sweat?

Eccrine Sweat Glands

Which sweat glands are widely distribute all over the body?

Eccrine Sweat Glands

Which sweat glands respond to fear or stress?

Apocrine Sweat Glands

Which sweat glands start functioning after puberty?

Apocrine Sweat Glands

Which sweat glands secrete an oily sweat?

Apocrine Sweat Gland

Which sweat glands secrete a sweat that bacteria like to metabolize and produce strong odors?

Apocrine Sweat Glands

Which sweat glands are most numerous in the armpit and groin?

Apocrine Sweat Glands

Which receptor in the skin respond to pressure

Pacinian Corpuscles

Which receptor in the skin detect fine touch?

Meissner's Corpuscles

How does the skin regulate body temperature when the body is too hot?

dialation of dermal blood vessels and sweating

How does the skin regulate body temperature when the body is too cold?

constriction of dermal blood vessels and apilli muscle contraction

How does the skin protect the body?

prevents loss of body fluids
protects against physical damage and UV radiation
protects against invasion of microorganisms

How does the skin regulate body temperature?

Insulation (hypodermis)
Constriction or Dialation of dermal blood vessels
Sweating or shivering

What stimuli is detected by the skin and communicated to the brain?

Temperature, Touch, Pain

How does the skin secrete metabolic wastes?

sweat glands release small amt of metabolic wastes

When does the skin produce Vitamin D?

when exposed to UV radiation

What causes most skin cancers?

UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds

Why are light skinned people more likely to develop skin cancer?

They have less melanin to absorb UV radiation

Skin cancer that arises from the melanocytes is called ___.

Cutaneous melanoma

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