When the Argentinean military killed, tortured, and arrested people that were in opposition of the military. As many as 20,000 people disappeared. The "Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo" marched silently holding pictures of their children that had disappeared every day.
Bay of Pigs
Plot to overthrow Castro using Cuban exiles. The CIA trained these Cuban exiles during the President Eisenhower administration. When President Kennedy became President he changed the plans. It was a failure because the U.S. changed the landing area and cut off contact with the rebels, Castro had been warned by KGB agents, more than 100,000 Cubans that were suspected to be security threats were rounded up and arrested, and the lack of U.S. air cover and support. This was where the Cuban exiles landed in Cuba when they were trying to overthrow Castro.
Involved in/ created liberation theology, the idea that the church (priests, nuns, and church workers) wanted to help those who were suffering and those who were poor. They made reforms for the poor. The Archbishop of El Salvador, Oscar Romero, was murdered for what he believed. Ita Ford, Maureen Clarke, Dorothy Kazel, and Jean Donovan, were female missionaries in El Salvador, 3 were nuns, 1 was a layperson, and they did missionary work there and were raped and murdered In EL Salvador for their work.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Castro allowed the Soviets to build a nuclear missile bases in Cuba, photographs were taken by a U-2 spy place that revealed the missile bases to the U.S., and in response to this similar U.S. bases were built at the Turkish-Soviet border. The U.S.'s three options were to have a destructive air attack on the missiles, have a full military invasion, or have a naval blockade of Cuba. Their decision was to have a Quarantine, which was a blockade but by the international law a blockade was an act of war, so they called it a Quarantine, 180 U.S. Navy ships were prepared for the blockade. Telegrams were sent between Khrushchev (leader of the Soviet Union) and Kennedy (president of the U.S.), one reason the Conflict lasted so long was because telegraphs take so long to get from one place to another. The result was that the Soviet Union had to withdraw all missiles from Cuban in exchange for the U.S. withdrawing its missiles from Turkey; however we do not withdraw all of our missiles.
In the 1950s, Castro rallied forces opposed to the corrupt Batista regime. By, 1959, Castro had led his tiny guerilla army to victory.
In 1982, the Argentinean army challenged the British for the Falkland Islands because they were arrogant and believed that the islands belonged to them. The British win and kept the Falkland Islands.
Growth of Urbanization
70% of the population in Latin America lives in the cities. Many live in Shantytowns. In shantytowns the houses are made or scrapes (garbage and leftovers from industries), they have 4 walls and a roof but nothing else and these are the people's houses.
(Institutional Revolutionary Party) Mexican political party. They represented everyone. Reformed health care, education, and welfare. From 1917-2000 all Mexican Presidents came from this group.
United States Intervention/Influence
The U.S. was a major Latin American trading partner and major investor. The U.S. was a defender of capitalism and a source or humanitarian aid. Latin America resented living under the U.S.'s shadow. The U.S. intervened in Latin America repeatedly during the Cold War.