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Middle Ages years

450-1450

For over 1,000 years the official music of the Roman Catholic church has been __________.

Gregorian Chant

consist of melody set to sacred Latin texts and sung without accompaniment

Gregorian Chant

____________, recognized the Catholic liturgy during his reign from 590-604.

Pop Gregory I

creator of the Gregorian Chant

Pope Gregory I

the highlight of the liturgical day, was a ritual reenactment of the last supper

mass

Gregorian melodies were passed on through ___________

oral tradiation

consists of seven different tones and an eigth tone that duplicates the first tone an octave higher.

church modes

the basic scales of western music during the middle ages and renaissance, were used in secular as well as sacred music.

church modes

Latinezed form of the Hebrew hallelujah (praise ye the Lord)

Alleluia

Alleluia chant is in what form?

ABA form

Who sings "O successores?

Hildegard of Bingen

wrote poetry and music,treatises on theology, science, and medicine, and a musical drama "Ordo virtutum"

Hildegard of Bingen

earliest known morality play

Ordo virtutum

was composed to be sung by the nuns in her convent

O successores

consist of one or more long, sustained tones accompanying a melody

drone

the pleasure of secular music and dance were vividly evoked by the 13th century theologian _______________

Henri de Malines

he was familiar with and willingly sand all kinds of monophonic songs in various languages

Henri de Malines

French nobles

troubadours and trouveres

the first large body of secular songs surviving in decipherable notation were conposed during the 12th and 13th centuries by ____________

french nobles

wandering minstrels

jongleurs

they performed music and acrobats in castles, taverns, and town squares. had no civil rights and were on the lowest social level, with prostitutes and slaves, only a lucky few found steady work

wandering minstrels

a medieval dance, is on of the earliest surviving forms of instrumental music

estampie

a single melodic line is noted and no instrument is specified.

estampie

a bowed string instrument

rebec

a tubular wind instrument

pipe

an estampie's melody is played on the __________ and a ___________

rebec; pipe

a plucked or strung instrument

psaltery

the _______ is in triple meter and has a strong fast beat

estampie

medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines is called ______________

organum

_______ - the intellectual and artistic capital of Europe, became the center of polyphonic music

Paris

supreme monument of Gothic architecture

Cathedral of Notre Dame

among the first notable coposers known by name. they and their followers are referred to as the school of Notre Dame

Leonin and Perotin

definite time values and clearly defined meters

measured music

secular music became more important than sacred music in the ___ century

14th

became an important rythmatic pattern in the 14th century

syncopation

changes in musical style in the 14th century were so profound that music theorists referred to Italian and French music as the ________

new art, ars nova in Latin

one of the most important composers whose works has survived

Machaut

was about sixty, fell in love with a beautiful noble, exchanged poems and letters for several years, difference in age proved too great and their relationship ended in mutual dissappointment

Machaut

one of the main poetic and musical forms in 14th and 15th century France

rondeau

Puis qu'en oubli sue de vous is a ____________

rondeau

one of the finest compositions known from the middle ages, is also of great historical important.

Notre Dame Mass

if is the first poluphonic treatment of the mass ordinary by a known composer

Notre Dame Mass

consists of texts that remain the same from day to day through out the church year

mass ordinary

Five sung prayers of the ordinary

1. Kyrie
2. Gloria
3. Credo
4. Sanctus
5. Agnus Dei

the five sung prayers of the ordinary masss have been set to ____________ music and have inspired some of the greatest choral works

polyphonic

performed in the early 1360's for performance at the cathedral of Reims

Notre Dame Mass

Renaissance years

1450-1600

wrote The Book of Courtier

Castiglione

many leading renaissance leaders came from?

the Low Countries

a low country which now includes parts of the netherlands, belguim, and northern france

flanders

musical representation of specific poetic images often used in Renaissance

word painting

the texture of renaissance music is chiefly __________

polyphonic

renaissance music sounds ________ than medieval music

fuller

unaccompanied choral music

a cappella

often called the "golden age"

renaissance

a polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the mass

motet

is a polyphonic coral composition made up of five sections: Kyria. Gloria, Credo, SAnctus, and Agnus Dei.

mass

was a master of Renaissance music, spent much of his life in Italy serving in dukes private chapels and in the papal choir at Rome.

Josquin Desprez

Josquin's four voice motet

Ave Maria

Latin prayer set to delicate and serene music

Ave Maria

the most impotant Italian Renaissance composer, devoted himself to music for the Catholic church.

Giovanni Pierluidi da Palestrina

career was centered in Rome, he held important church positions, music director for St. Peter's

Giovanni Pierluidi da Palestrina

Palestrina's most famous mass, thought to have convinced the Council of Trent tat polyphonis masses should be kept in Catholic worship

Pope Marcellus Mass

written for an a cappella choir of six voice parts, soprano, alto, two tenors, and two bases.

Pope Marcellus Mass

has a rich polyphonic texture. six voice parts that constantly imitate each other.

Kyrie

a piece for several solo voices set to a short poem, usually about love. combines homophonic and polyphonic textures uses word painting and unusual harmonies

madrigal

finest English madrigalist or organist and church composer, As Vesta Was Descending,

Thomas Weelkes

has the light mood of English madrigals, word painting is plentiful,

As Vesta Was Descending

derives from the Arab instrument known as the "ud", is a plucked string instrument with a body shaped like half a pear

lute

the leading English composer of the lite songs, Flow My Tears

John Dowland

consist of 3\three brief musical sections, that are each immediatly repeated

Flow My Tears

instrumental music became more important during ___________

Renaissance

popular Renaissance entertainment

dancing

Baroque period years

1600-1750

a baroque piece usually expresses one basic mood

affections

alternation between loud and soft music

terraced dynamics

produced sound by means of brass blades striking the strings

clavichord

is usually played by at least two instruments and a low melodic instrument

basso continuo

bass part with numbers

figured bass

a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent bbut is part of a larger composition

movement

in the mid eighteenth century, was a fluist and good composer as well as a feared general

Frederick the Great

a small group of soloists is pitted against a larger group of players called the tutti

concerto grosso

a large group of players in a concerto grosso

tutti

there are three movements in a concerto gross

fast, slow, fast

first and last movements of the concerti grosso, based on alternation between tutti and solo sections

ritornello form

a fine example of ritornello form

Brandenburg Concerto No. 5

a polyphonic composition based on one main them called a subject

fugue

one main theme in a fugue

subject

when the second voice presents the subject

answer

five scales higher than the tonic

dominant scale

the subjectin one voice is constantly accompanied in another voice by a different melodic idea called a __________

countersubject

transitional sections, which offer either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject

episodes

a subject matter in imitated before it is completed, one voice tries to catch the other

stretto

a single tone is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it

pedal point, or organ point

a subject can be turned upside down, in a procedure callled _________

inversion

the subject may be presented with the last note of the subject and proceeding backward to the first

retrograde

the subject may be presented, in which the original time values are lengthened

augmentation

the subject may appear with shortened time values

diminution

an independent fugue is introduced by a short piece called a _______

prelude

drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment

opera

text of the opera is usually written by librettist and set to music by the composer

libretto

dramatist that write the libretto

librettist

the 7 voice catagories of opera

1. coloratura soprano
2. lyric soprano
3. dramatic soprano
4. lyric tenor
5. dramatic tenor
6. basso buffo
7. basso profondo

voice catagory of opera that has very high range, can execute rapid scales and trills

coloratura soprano

voice catagory of opera that has rather light voice, sings rolesalling fo grace and charm

lyric soprano

voice catagory of opera that has full, powerful voices, is capable of passionate intensity

dramatic soprano

voice catagory of opera that has relatively light, bright voice

lyric tenor

voice catagory of opera that has powerful voice, is capable of heroic expression

dramatic tenor

voice catagory of opera that takes comic roles, can sing very rapidly

basso buffo

voice catagory of opera that has very low range, powerful voice, takes roles calling for great dignity

basso profondo

a song or solo voice with orchestral accompaniment

aria

a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech

recitative

when three of more singers are involved

ensemble

generates atmosphere and makes comments on the action

chorus

gives cues and reminds the singers of words or pitches if they momentarily forget

prompter

a sunken area directly infront of the stage

orchestra pit

most operas open with a purely orchestral compostition called an ________, or a ________

overture; prelude

Opera was born in ______

Italy

small group of nobles, poets, and composters who began to meet regurlarly in Florence around 1575, Italian for fellowship or society, included the composer Vincenzo Galilei

Camerata

the earliest opera that has been preserved

Euridice by Jacopo Peri

the first public opera house opened in ?

Venice

a male singer who had been castrated before puberty

castrato

recitatives were usually accompanied only by a basso continuo, they are called ________

secco recitatives

at emotional high points and moments of tension, recitatives might be supported by the orchestra, they are then called ___________

accompanied recitatives

one of the most important composers of the early baroque era. was born in Cremono, Italy

Claudio Monteverdi

first earliest operatic master piece by Monteverdi

Orfeo

called the greatest of English composers, was born in London

Henry Purcell

at about 18 he became composer to the king's string orchestra, two years later he was appointed organist of Westminister Abbey, in 1682 he became an organist of the Chapel Royle, was also active composting music for plays

Henry Purcell

died at 36, was burried beneath the organ in Westminister Abbey

Henry Purcell

repeated musical idea

ground bass or basso ostinato

was written for students at a girls' boarding school

Dido and Aeneas

Dido and Aeneas was by?

Nahum Tate

a composition in several movements for one to eight instruments

sonato

had three melodic lines, two high lines and a basso continuo

trio sonatas

trio sonata actually includes ____ instruments

four, two high instruments, and two for the basso continuo

most prominent Italian violinist, laid the foundations of modern violin technique

Arcangelo Corelli

a plucked string instrument which is capable of producing chords as well as the bass line

cello, or theorbo

the sonata consist of four short movements

fast, fast, slow, fast

a towering figure of the late Italian baroque, was born in Venice, his father was a violinist at St. Marks Cathedral

Antonio Vivaldi

violin teacher, composer, ad conductor at the music school of Pieta

Vivaldi

a piece for a single soloist and an orchestra

solo concerto

a set of four solo concertos for violin, string orchestra, and basso continuo. depicts sounds and events associated with one of the seasons.

La Primavera

an ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart

trill

marked the high point of baroque music, four of his sons were composers

Johann Sebastian Bach

the term used for music created at the same time it is performed

improvisation

sets of dance-inspired movements

suites

the movements of a suite are usually in __________

two part form, AABB

______ begin with a movement that is not dance inspired

suites

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