short, fragmentary patterns of rhythm, melody or, less often, harmony. Has 1 primary characteristic by which it is recognized. (more than 1 = theme)
Longer, more complex and complete musical ideas. Usually thought of as a melodic idea, but all melodies have a rhythm and at least suggest a harmonic background. Form tone color and dynamic scheme.
building larger and more complex units of music out of the distinctive fragment (repeated motives). Recognizable feature of the motive remains intact as it is expanded.
succession of larger musical units. Repeating a whole theme which changing some characteristic. Typically each variation of a theme retains some features of the original version while others are changed.
purposefully organized sound
1. consists of sound
2. organized or manipulated in some fashion
3. some purpose or intent for the activity
1. the things we do
2. the things we use
3. beliefs, values, morals, traditions
quality of highness or lowness - frequency of sound vibrations
quality or sonority of a sound. a violin, flute, trumpet and piano all produce the same pitch but each has a different sound or tone color.
the length of a sound - notes as fractional values
relationship of sounds in time or the relative durations of sounds and silences
relationship of successive pitches - any succession of pitches
relationship of pitches sounded simultaneously and the relationship of successive chords. always has 2 potential dimensions; combination of pitches heard at any moment and the ways in which such combinations might relate in sequence
the number of lines or layers of sound heard at any given time and their relationship to one another. ex. melody with chords
relative loudness of different sounds (fortissimo, piano, crescendo)
a general category or type of music as indicated primarily by its medium, form, style and function
the combination of characteristics that make a period of art, a particular composer's music or an individual composition distinctive
the purpose or intended use of a piece of music
the structure, shape or design of a piece of music
the instruments or voices for which a piece of music is created
the information conveyed by a piece of music, particularly its subjective or expressive qualities
the regularly recurring, stressed sounds in a piece of music
the rate at which the pulse recurs. usually measured in beats per minute.
the organization or grouping of beats into units of two or more. Occurs when some pulses are more strongly emphasized than others
organization of 2 pulse units
1,2 1,2 1,2
organization of the beat into units of three beats
the organization of the pulse into units of other than two or three beats
beats may also be subdivided to produce specific rhythmic patterns
emphasizing or stressing of a particular sound
an accent in an irregular or unexpected place - normally unaccented beats or within beats.
the total pitch span covered by a melody or the distance between its highest and lowest notes
the overall contour of the rising and falling pitches of a melody, either the whole melody or a particular phrase
the subdivision of a whole melody into smaller units - may be short or long, regular or irregular in length
a melody that consistently moves note-to-note by scale steps or small intervals
a melody may also be classified by the type of scale from which its notes are derived
a texture with only one layer and nothing else
a texture of one main layer that is not always together - 2 musicians simultaneously playing slightly different versions of the same melody
any texture of tweo or more layers of sound with one layer consistently seeming more prominent, important or interesting
a texture with two or more layers of equal importance or interest. usually refers to music in which there are two or more independent and equally interesting melodies occurring at the same time.
the distance between any two pitches
the fundamental interval; any two pitches whose frequencies of vibration are in a 1:2 ratio form the interval of an octave
an ordered succession of pitches within one octave
the succession of twelve equally spaced pitches within an octave. the intervals between pitches in the chromatic scale are called half steps. playing black and white keys in ascending or descending order.
a scale of seven different pitches within an octave and arranged in a variable pattern of 5 larger intervals and two smaller ones- ascending or descending white keys only
a particular diatonic scale, there are a number or different common ones are major mode and minor mode
any combination of two or more pitches sounded together - usually 3 or 4 pitches
a chord that is considered to be stable, resolves or at rest
a chord that is considered to be unstable, unresolved or tense
key - the feeling of centrality or prominence of one pitch over all others in a piece or passage of music
1. by sounding the central pitch continuously
2. by sounding the central pitch more frequently than others
3. by sounding the central pitch in a more prominent position in the music
4. by consistently following certain natural tendencies of pitch in progression in the establishment and resolution of dissonance
the absence of any feeling of tonality or key
music that is in two or more keys simultaneously
a change of key - establishment of a new central pitch or keynote in a passage of music
succession of chords taht follow natural or expected tendencies in the establishment and resolution of dissonance - functional harmony always establishes a key
successions of chords that do not follow natural tendencies or expectations in the establishment and resolution of dissonance. All atonal music has non-functional harmony but tonal music may have some degree of non-functional harmony.
music in which chords are formed exclusively by using the notes of a particular diatonic scale
harmony in which the chords are formed by using all or most of the 12 pitches of the chromatic scale within a relatively brief span. Tends to be richer and more colorful than diatonic harmony.