Basic or Primary emotions
emotions considered to be universal and biologically based; they generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt
Collectivism (Japan & India): Prize harmony among members of their in-group & discourage expression of any negative emotions that might upset relationships among people who belong to it.
Individualism (U.S. & Canada): feel comfortable revealing their emotions to people they are close.
process by which emotions are transferred from one person to another, process by which emotions are transferred from one person to another
Reference to Aristotle, read concept of moderation?
the idea that correct ethical action often lies between two extremes. one should be able to go within their means. not every person will do the same thing, but they will do the same mean for their situation. Virtue
emotions that contribute to effective functioning
emotions that prevents a person form functioning effectively
The characteristics that distinguish debilatative feeling from facilitative ones?
Does what we think affect how we feel?
True or False, often the first flush of a strong feeling is the best time to speak out?
When we overexpress negative feelings do we suffer physiologically?
Regarding how we experience and express our emotions, do biological sex & gender roles play a part in that?
True or False: when a person has strong emotions, many bodily changes occur?
How is personality involved in how we experience and communicate emotionally?
Personality can determine if we emotionally respond negatively or positively. Ex. An extraverted person (upbeat, optimisic, enjoy social contact.) are emotionally positive. Neurotic Personality (worry, fell anxious, apprehensive)- are emotionally negative.
In mainstream U.S. society are there unwritten rules of communication that discourage the direct expression of most emotions?
What are sources of debilitative emotions?
Physiology, Emotional Memory, Self Talk,
Who developed rational-emotive therapy?
Forms of debilitative self-talk
Inner critic- The inner voice that judges us as inadequate
Inner defender- The inner voice that judges, blames, and criticizes othes
Inner guide- The wise inner voice that seeks to make the best of the situation
What is the fallacy of perfection?
The irrational belief that a worthwhile communicator should be able to handle every situation with complete confidence and skill.
What is the fallacy of approval?
Irrational belief that it is vital to win the approval of every person a communicator deals with.
What is the fallacy of shoulds?
The irrational belief that people should behave in the most desireable way.
What is the fallacy of overgeneralization?
irrational beliefs in which 1. negative conclusions are based on little evidence 2. they exaggerate their shortcomings
What is the fallacy of causation?
The irrational belief that emotins are caused by others and not by the person who has them or by one's own self-talk.
What is the fallacy of helplessness?
The irrational belief that satisfaction in life is determined by forces out of your control.
What is fallacy of catastrophic expectations?
The irrational belief that the worst possible outcome will occur.
What are some ways to minimize debilitative emotions?
1. Monitor your emotional reactions
2. Note the activating event
3. Record your self-talk
4.Reappraise your irrational beliefs.
Do most people eagerly express their emotions?
Cultural stereotype of the unexpressive male & the more expressive female?
- As a group, women are more likely than men to express positive emotions and feelings of vulnerability.
- Men are less bashful about revealing their stengths