Diseases of the Muscle

37 terms by ScruggsBCHS 

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adhesion

band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. May form in muscles & internal organs as the result of injury or surgery

muscle atrophy

weakness & wastin away of muscle tissue; may be caused by pathology or disuse of the muscle over a long period of time

myalgia

muscle tenderness or pain

myolysis

degeneration (breaking down) of muscle tissue

myositis

inflammation of a muscle tissue, especially skeletal muscles

polymyositis

chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles that is characterizd by muscle weakness & atrophy

myomalacia

abnormal softening of muscle tissue

myorrhexis

rupture of a muscle

myosclerosis

abnormal hardening of the muscle

hernia

protrusion of a part or structure trough the tissues normally containing it

myocele

protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia

atonic

lack of normal muscle tone

dystonia

condition of abnormal muscle tone

hypertonia

condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles w/ an increased resistance of muscle to passive stretching

hypotonia

condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles w/ decreased resistance of muscle to passive stretching

myotonia

delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction (similar to a cramp)

ataxia

inability to coordinate the muscles in the execution of voluntary movement

dystaxia

aka-partial ataxial; difficulty in controlling voluntary movement

contracture

abnormal shortening of muscle tissues, making the muscle resistant to stretching

intermittent claudication

complex of symptoms including cramp-like pain of the leg muscles caused by poor circulation. It may indicate a larger CV problem

spasm

aka cramp; sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles

spasmodic torticollis

aka wryneck; stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head towards the affected side

bradykinesia

extreme slowness of movement

dyskinesia

distortion or impairment of voluntary movement as in a tic or spasm

hyperkinesia

aka hyperactivity; abnormally increased motor function or activity

hypokinesia

abnormally decreased motor function or activity

tardive dyskinesia

late appearance of dyskinesia as a side effect of long-term treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs

myoclonus

spasm or twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of the limbs that may occur normally as a person is falling asleep

singultus

aka hiccups; myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the hiccup sound w/ each spasm;

myasthenia

muscle weakness from any cause

Myasthenia Gravis

aka MG; chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness; affect muscles that control eye movement, eyelids, chewing, swallowing, coughing & facial expression

Muscular Dystrophy

group of inherited muscle disorders that cuase muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system

Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy

appears from two to six years of age & progresses slowly. Survival rare beyond the late twenties

Becker's Muscular Dystrophy

less severe illness and doe snot appear until early adolescence or adulthood; survival middle to late adulthood

Fibromyalgia Syndrome

chronic disorder of unknown cause, characterized by widespread aching pain, tender points and fatigae; aka FMS; is not progressive & is not crippling

Tender Points

abnormal localized areas of soreness; are important diagnostic indicators of FMS; these points occur @ predictable locations @ the base of the neck, along th backgbone, in front of the hip & elbow & @ the rear of the knee and shoulder.

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