Fundamentals of Communication - Chapter 4

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Define perception

The process where we make sense out of experience. We use it to make sense of the world, and it involves the following processes:

- Selecting
- Organizing
- Subjectively interpreting sensory details

What is perception affected by?

- Senses
- Physical state
- Predisposition (past experiences)
- Values
- Knowledge
- Age
- Physiological state

What is selective perception?

The means of interpreting experience in a way that conforms to one's beliefs, expectations, and convictions

Explain the "Figure-Ground" Principle

Because you can mainly focus on just one thing at a time, what you DO focus on is the figure, while everything else you ignore is ground (e.g. in a movie shot where the actor is shown clearly against a blurry background)

What are the 4 steps of processing stimuli?

1. Select - Attend to stimuli one is exposed to
2. Organize - Give order to the selective stimuli
3. Interpret/Evaluate - Making sense or giving meaning to the stimuli
4. Response - What we decide to think, say, or do

What are some barriers to perception?

1. Perceptual Sets
2. Selective Exposure
3. Selective Attention
4. Selective Retention
5. Halo/Horn Effect
6. First Impressions
7. Primary Effect
8. Stereotypes, prejudice, and allness

What are Perceptual Sets?

Past experiences that influence one's future experiences in a predetermined way

Define Selective Exposure

Exposing yourself to information that conforms only to your beliefs, attitudes, and values

What is Selective Attention?

Where one focuses on certain things while ignoring others (e.g. believing only things you want to)

Define Selective Retention

Remembering things that reinforce our beliefs and attributes while forgetting things that oppose our way of thinking

Describe the Halo and Horn Effects

The Halo Effect is perceiving qualities that are primarily positive while the Horn Effect is just the opposite. An individual engaged in the Halo Effect will see the bright side of things while someone of the Horn Effect will be predominantly pessimistic on the same token

Describe first impressions

Initial judgments about people. They will always stay with someone but opinion are likely to change as time goes on

What is the Primary Effect?

The ability of one's first impression to "color" following impressions

Define Allness

The belief that you think you know everything there is to know about a given subject. This is, however, quite impossible

Elaborate on Fact/Interference Confusion

Distorting perception on what is fact and what is inferred. It's a fact that my laptop is silver, but it's an inference to think Sony wanted it designed that way originally

What are some methods to increase the accuracy of perception?

1. Be aware your perceptions are personally biased in some way or another
2. Take your time
3. Be open: Review, revise, and update your view of the world constantly
4. Empathize - Putting yourself in others' shoes

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