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Egalitarian

A person who believes in the equality of all people and a social society.

"Democratization"

The spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative (elected by the people).

Alexis de Toequeville

A French intellectual who was most famous for his exploration of the affects of raising of social society on both the state and the people. His findings were published in books, such as "Democracy in America"

"Mass Politics"

Politics which were media driven and based on emotions of the people, encourgaed the expansion of political democracy.

King "Mob"

Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy.

Daniel Webster

United States politician and orator, as well as the leader of the Whig Party. Originally pro-North, he supported the Compromise of 1850 and lost popularity. He also participated in the Webster-Hayne Debates.

Doorites

A group formed by the former members of the Peoples Party.

Political Bosses

Powerful politicians who controlled the workforce through bribery.

Martin Van Buren

8th President of the United States who served as a democratic republican.

Blackhawk War

War that was fought in 1832 in the Midwestern United States. Consisted of more than 150 battles, raids, and killings between Mormon settlers and Native American tribes in Utah.

The Marshall Court

The Suprem Court under Chief Justice John Marshall, which contributed to the growth of judicial review and supported federal power.

"Five Civilized Tribes"

Name of the most populous Indian tribes in the Indian Territory: Cherokee, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; they sided with the Confederacy

Cherokees

an Indian nation that developed their own written language,converted to Christianity, developed their own system of government, and considered agriculture their career. They were the subject of abuse by Jackson, and were relocated in the Trail of Tears.

Trail of Tears

The forced removal of the Cherokee Indians to Indian territory. The Cherokees were devistated and nearly 4,000 Indians died from the journey.

Removal Act of 1830

An act that forced all Indians to except exchanged for their land in the east for land in Indian Territory (further west).

Indian Territory

An area to which Native Americans were moved covering what is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska

Worchester vs. Georgia

What is the name of the court case in which the Indians of Georgia sued; John Marshall ruled for them and said that state law had no authority in Cherokee territory.

Seminole Wars

Seminoles under Osceola and escaped black slaves refused to move out of Florida and staged guerrilla War against the United States

Osceola

Led a band of Seminoles that hid in the Everglades and used guerrilla tactics to defeat the U.S Army, ultimatly seized.

The Bank War

Jackson was determined to destroy the Bank of the United States because he thought it was too powerful. He felt the Bank was unconstitutional and only benefited the rich. He transfered all money from Federal Bank to pet banks which devistated the economy.

Whigs

Political party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery.

Maysville Road Veto

Jackson's veto of a bill proposing the making of a road from Mary, 1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.

"Soft Money/ Hard Money"

Soft money is money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes, whereas hard money is , political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.

Charles Riverbridge vs. Warren Bridge

A case over a disagreement between the contracts of two companies to build bridges in a close proximity. The first company chartered to build the bridge argued that Warren was violating their contract. However, cheif justice Taney sided with Warren.

Spoils System

The system of employing and promoting the friends and supporters of the group in power, greatly used by Andrew Jackson.

Caucus

A private meeting of party leaders to choose candidates for office.

Political Convention

The meeting of a political party in order to set policy and select nominees.

John C. Calhoun

South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification.

Nullification

the act of counteracting or overriding the affects of a law or bill

Tariff

A tax placed on all imported or exported goods.

Tariff of Abominations, 1828

highest import tax ever, which as much a doubled the tax rates on some goods. Liked by the North, but despised by the South.

"The South Carolina"

Stated South Carolina's thoughts of succession from the Union.

"Expansion and Protest"

Argued about moving/expanding westward.

Peggy Eaton Affair

A social scandal where many wealthy cabinet member's wives snubbed the socially unacceptable Peggy Eaton, wife of John Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.

The Webster-Hayne Debate

The heated debate between Daniel Webster and Robert Y. Hayne that was caused by the calling for the temporary suspension of land surveying until the land on the market was sold.

Senator Thomas Hart Benton

Senator Benton was an American statesman. He represented Missouri in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. His daughter, Jessie Benton, married adventurer John C. Fremont, and Benton used his influence to have records of Fremont's explorations published as government documents.

Henry Clay

United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states.

"Noble savages/ Savages"

Noble savages refer to what Jefferson and his followers liked to think of Native Americans as, meaning uncivilized but not necessarily uncivilizable. Savages were classified as a person regarded as primitive or uncivilized.

"King Andrew I"

The nickname for Andrew Jackson negatively refering to his excessive use of the veto power and his tyranical ways as president.

Constituencies

The people and interest that political officers represent.

Whig Party

A former political party in the United States, which was formed against the Democratic Party with the values of loose construction and protective tariffs.

Anti-Mason

Formed as an opposition party to the freemasonry party, started political innovations such as the nominating conventions.

The Great Triumvirate

When Henry Clay from Kentucky (represented the west), John C. Calhoun from South Carolina (represented the south), Daniel Webster from Massachusetts (represented the north)guided Congress for almost 50 years.

William Henry Harrison

Was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Frederick Jackson Turner

Wrote the fronteir thesis, which stressed the role of the western frontier in American history.

The Panic of 1837

Major economic depression lasting about six years; touched off by a British financial crisis and made worse by falling cotton prices, credit and currency problems, and speculation in land, canals, and railroads. Also caused by Jackson's emptying of the Bank of the US.

Pet Banks

Small, state banks in which Jackson transfered the money from the Federal Bank in his attempts to destroy the Bank of the United States.

"Specie Circular"

Provided that payment of public lands would be accepted in only gold or silver currency.

Log Cabin Campaign

The name given to William Henry Harrison's campaign for the presidency in 1840, symbolized that WHH was a common man.

"Old Tippicanoe"

Nickname of William Henry Harrison

John Tyler

Became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died suddenly. Though he was serving under the Whig party, he refuted many Whig policies and was rejected from the Party. Used the annexation of Texas as his new party platform.

The Creole and Caroline Affairs

The Caroline Affair was the burning of a US supply ship that helped provide goods to Canadian rebels. The Creole Affair was the seizing of an American ship by slaves from Great Britian, with no response from Great Britian to help control their slaves.

The Aroostook War

an undeclared (and ultimately bloodless) confrontation between the United States and Great Britain over the international boundary between Canada and Maine.

Webster Ashburton Treaty

Followed by Aroostook War, 1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition.

Caleb Cushing

American diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Wany Hya with China.

Treaty of Wang Hya

Extended the US trade in China to equal that of GB. China agreed to open Chinese ports for the US.

Nicholas Biddle

President of the bank of the United States, Jackson's enemy

Roger B. Taney

Jackson's Secretary of State that transfered all the money out of the US bank and into pet banks in order to kill US bank (all under jackson's orders), then became Chief Justice of the Supreme court for the next 30 years

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