the use of the edges of the film frame to select and to compose what will be visible onscreen
the width of the film strip, measured in millimeters.
various types of films that audiences and filmmakers recognize by their familiar narrative conventions: ex. musical, gangster, sci fi
two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements
illumination that creates comparatively little contrast between the light and dark areas of the shot: shadows are fairly transparent and brightened by fill light
internal diegetic sound
sound represented as coming from the mind of a character within the story space; although we and the character can hear it, we assume that the other characters cannot
an elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot; backrounds usually change
in the three-point lighting system, the brightest illumination coming into the scene
a shaped piece of transparent material with either or both sides curved to gather and focus light rays
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is small
a shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot
illumination that creates strong contrast between light and dark areas of the shot, with deep shadows and little fill light
match on action
a continuity cut that splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement, making it seem to continue uninterrupted
medium close up
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is fairly large
medium long shot
a framing at a distance that makes an object about four or five feet high appear to fill most of the screen vertically
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is moderate size
all of the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed; settings, props, lighting, costumes, etc
a synonym for editing
a type of filmic organization in which the parts relate to one another through a series of causally related events taking place in time and space
sound, such as mood music or narrator's commentary, represented as coming from a source outside the space of the narrative
a camera movement with the camera body turning to the right or left
in narrative film, all the events that are directly presented to us, including their causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations
a shot taken with the camera placed approx. where the character's eyes would be showing what the character would see
shifting the area of sharp focus from one plane to another during a shot
a cue for suggesting depth in the image by presenting objects in the distance less distinctly than those in the foreground.
a lens for making widescreen films using regular "Academy Ratio" frame size. The camera lens thakes in a wide field of view and squeezes it onto the frame, and a similar projector lens unsqueezes the image onto a wide theater screen.
angle of framing
the position of the frame in relation to the subject it shows: above it, looking down (a high angle); horizontal , on the same level (a straight-on angle); below it, looking up (low angle). Also called camera angle.
the relationship of the frame's width to its height. The standard Academy ratio is currently 1.85:1.
Sound that is not matched temporally with the movements occuring in the image, as when dialogue is out of synchronization with lip movements.
The presumed or actual author of a film, usually identified as the director. Also sometimes used in an evaluative sense to distinguish good filmmakers from bad ones.
axis of action
in the continuity editing system, the imaginary line that passes from side to side through the main actors, defining the spatial relations of all the elements of the scene as being to the right or left.
Illumination cast onto the figures in the scene from the side opposite the camera, usually creating a thin outline of highlighting on those figures.
a pole upon which a microphone can be suspended above the scene being filmed and that is used to change the microphone's position as the action shifts.
A view in which the frame is not level; either the right or the left side is lower than the other, causing objects in the scene to appear slanted out of an upright position.
using digital software systems to create figures, settings or other material in the frame.
A framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large; most commonly, a person's head seen from the neck up, or an object of a comparable size that fills most of the screen.
A system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action. It relies on matching screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to shot.
A shot with a change in framing accomplished by placing the camera above the subject and moving through the air in any direction.
Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occuring in different places, usually simultaneously.
1. in filmmaking, the joining of two strips of film together with a splice.
2. in the finished film, an instantaneous change one framing to another.
An instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space.
A use of the camera lens and lighting that keeps objects in both close and distant planes in sharp focus.
An arrangement of mise-en-scene elements so that there is a considerable distance between the plane closest to the camera and the one farthest away. Any or all of these planes may be in focus.
depth of field
the measurements of the closest and farthest planes in front of the camera lens between which everything will be in sharp focus.
In a narrative film, the world of the film's story. It includes events that are presume to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen.
any voice, musical passage, or sound effect presented as originating from a source within the film's world.
any alternative system of joining shots together using techniques unacceptable within continuity editing principles. Possibilities include mismatching of temporal and spatial relations, violations of the axis of action, and concentration on graphic relationships.
a transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears.
a camera support with wheels, used in making tracking shots.
in a narrative film, the shortening of plot duration achieved by omitting story duration.
shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipsis in plot duration.
a shot, usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects, and setting in a scene.
external diegetic sound
sound represented as coming from a physical source within the story space that we assume characters in the scene also hear.
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is very large; most commonly, a small object or a part of the body.
extreme long shot
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is very small; a building, landscape, or crowd of people will fill the screen.
1. a dark screen that gradually brightens as a shot appears.
2. a shot that gradually disappears as the screen darkens.
illumination froma source less bright than the key light, used to soften deep shadows in a scene.
a piece of glass or gelatin placed in front of the camera or printer lens to alter the quality or quantity of light striking the film in the aperture.
an alteration of story order in which the plot moves back to show events that have taken place earlier than ones already shown.
an alteration of story order in which the plot moves forward to future events and then returns back to the present.
the distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus. it determines the perspective relations of the space represented on the flat screen.
the degree to which light rays coming from the same part of an object through different parts of the lens reconverge at the same point on the film frame, creating sharp outlines and distinct textures.
a shot with framing that shifts to keep a moving figure onscreen
a single image on the strip of film. when a series of ______ is projected onto a screen in quick succession, an illusion of movement is created.
in shooting, the number of frames exposed per second; standard ____ is 24 frames per second
a return to a view of an entire space after a series of closer shots following the establishing shot
short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the figures' movements, keeping them onscreen or centered
the process of dividing a film into parts for analysis
a restricted depth of field, which keeps only one plane in sharp focus; the opposite of deep focus
in shooting, one uninterrupted run of the camera to expose a series of frames
two or more shots edited together that alternate characters, typically in a conversation situation ex. over the shoulder shots
at the beginning of once scene, the sound from the previous scene carries over briefly before the sound from the new scene begins
a general term for various photographic manipulations that create fictitious spatial relations in the shot ex. superimpostion, matte shots, and rear projection
in narrative film. all thee vents that we see and hear, plus all those that we infer or assume to have occurred, arranged in their presumed causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations
a tool used in planning film production, consisting of comic-strip-like drawings of individual shots or phase of shots with descriptions written below each drawing
sound that is matched temporally with the movements occurring in the images, as when dialogue corresponds to lip movements
in filmmaking, the shot produced by on uninterrupted run of the camera
a common arrangement using three directions of light on a scene: ex. backlighting, key light, fill light
a camera movement with the camera body swiveling upward or downward on a stationary support; it produces a mobile framing that scans the space vertically
a mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally
wide angle lens
a lens of short focal length that affects a scene's perspective by distorting straight lines near the edges of the frame and by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background planes
a transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating one shot as it goes and replacing it with the next one
illumination that avoids harsh bright and dark areas, creating a gradual transition from highlights to shadows