Large Sociological Perspectives
Society is like a system with different parts that do different things; All parts of a society must function together for the society to work
Groups conflict over access to scarce resources; group conflict is constant in society
Society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Developed Structural Functionalism
Saw the Industrialism Revolution as positive
Society is held together by the need for each other
Developed Conflict Theory
Saw the Industrialism Revolution as negative
Dehumanizing and oppressive system
Developed Symbolic Interactionism
"Owners of companies don't know how to make their own product"
Developed out of Conflict Theory's criticism
Critical of power relationships embedded in all systems of society
Mass culture is oppressive
Developed out of Conflict Theory's views on power
How masculinity & femininity are maintained, enacted, changed in society
Developed out of Symbolic Interactionism's ideas of socially constructed reality
Distrustful of claims of "objectiviy"
Pessimistic w/out coherent theories
Not having rules, structures, norms
Work better with quantitative research methods; Structural Functionalism & Conflict Theory
Work better with qualitative research methods; Symbolic Interactionism
Quantitative Research Methods
Broad amounts of info
Generalizable to all populations
Qualitative Research Methods
Small sample sizes
Not generalizable to large populations
Ability for someone else to replicate your experiment and produce similar results
Experiment is testing what it is intended to
Principles of Research Ethics
Anonymity and Confidentiality
Sanctions are small
Connected to moral values
Sanctions are larger
Really big norms
Not supposed to think of doing it
Connected to strong moral values
Sanctions are extreme
Any norm written down
Sanctions are imposed by governing body
Evaluating things in a different culture using your own cultural values
"Our way is the right way"
Evaluating things in a different culture using their own values
Our language shapes our experience of the world
Patterns that occur in all known societies
A position in society that someone fills
Statuses assigned to us that we can't control
Statuses that we choose to attain through our efforts
Status that becomes primary in our lives or minds
Sets of expectations assigned to a status
Our actual behavior in a role
The expectations from two different statuses collide or compete
The process of becoming a part of your social world, people acquire knowledge, language, values and behavior
Looking Glass Self
Charles Horton Cooley
We imagine what other people think of us
We constantly work to influence how others see us
Two or more people who are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social integration and who share a feeling of unity
Two people linked together in a relatively stable set of expectations
Goal oriented ties
Relationships end after goal has been achieved
Expressive ties dominate
Groups come together for a specific purpose
Formal, goal-oriented interaction
Instrumental ties dominate
Group that you belong to
"us" or "we"
Provides social identity
Group you don't belong to
"they" or "them"
May want to join, may not
People in groups work less hard than they would if they were working alone
Group members are faced with either maximizing their own gain or maximizing the gain of the group
Used in social comparisons
Group decision-making process that prioritizes group cohesion over rational thinking
Relatively stable idea of "who we really are"
More temporary idea of ourselves in a given context
The evaluation we make of ourselves
The belief that one can overcome obstacles and achieve goals
Messages we get from observing how others interact with us, based on body language, speech, facial expressions, etc.
Comparison based on reference groups, groups that we see as relevant references
Identity we create based on group memberships
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