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Anatomy and Physiology

Mediastinum

The anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm.

pericardium

The membrane that surrounds and protects the heart is called the

to the left of the midline

The apex of the heart is normally pointed

fibrous pericardium

The outermost layer of the pericardium, which consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue, is called the

Pericardial fluid

This is used to reduce friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart.

Epicardium

This layer of the heart wall consists of mesothelium and connective tissue.

Myocardium

Which layer of the heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue?

Auricle

This pouch-like structure increases the total filling capacity of the atrium.

Anterior interventricular sulcus

This groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.

Pectinate muscles

These muscular ridges are found on the anterior wall of the right atrium and extend into the auricles.

Tricuspid valve

Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?

Dense connective tissue

What type of tissue comprises the valves of the heart?

Aortic semilunar valve

Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?

Ductus arteriosus

In a fetus, this structure allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.

into arteries.

Contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly

through atrioventricular valves

Contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Which valve prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle?

Aortic stenosis

Which is a disorder in which the aortic semilunar valve is narrowed?

Right atrium and right ventricle

Which chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?

Coronary artery

Which blood vessel is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?

gap junctions

Cardiac muscle fibers are electrically connected to neighboring fibers by

Cardiac muscle

Which type of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?

Cardiac conduction system

This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.

SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers

Correctly list the sequence of structures that a cardiac potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart

a longer

In comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart are depolarized for _________ period of time.

cardiac output

The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute is called the

systole

This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction of a chamber occurs and pressure within the chamber rises.

ventricular systole

During which period does the largest volume of blood enter the arteries?

Semilunar valves closing

The second heart sound (dupp) closely follows which event?

Sinoatrial node

This structure in the heart initiates action potentials that stimulate contraction of the heart at constant rate of about 100 beats per minute.

Vagus nerve

Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.

Increased potassium levels in plasma

Which of the following would lead to a decreased heart rate?
A) Increased norepinephrine release
B) Increased thyroid hormone release
C) Increased potassium levels in plasma
D) Increased calcium levels in plasma
E) Increased sympathetic stimulation

Medulla oblongata

This part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulates heart rate.

T wave

Which wave in an electrocardiogram represents repolarization of the ventricles?

increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility

Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?

P wave

Which of the following electrocardiogram (EKG) waves represents atrial depolarization?
A) R wave
B) T wave
C) S wave
D) P wave
E) Q wave

I

This portion of the heart wall is responsible for the pumping action.

F

This is comprised of a thin layer of endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissue.

B

Which layer of the pericardium consists of dense irregular connective tissue?

G

In the diagram, where are the trabeculae carneae?

E

In the diagram, where is the coronary sulcus?

G

In the diagram, where is the left auricle of the left atrium?

B

In the diagram, where is the ascending aorta?

E and I

In the diagram, these structures contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.

B

In the diagram, which labeled structure prevents blood flow from the right ventricle back into the right atrium?

A

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the pulmonary semilunar valve?

B and D

In the diagram, which labeled structures are atrioventricular valves?

E

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery?

B

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the marginal branch of the right coronary artery?

D

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery?

3 and 5

Which phases of a heartbeat shown in the diagram involve repolarization of the heart's four chambers?

A

Which of the labeled diagrams shows coarctation of the aorta?

C

Which of the labeled diagrams shows an atrial septal defect?

C

Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represent formation of the primitive heart tube?

B

Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represent formation of the endocardial tubes?

F

Which blood vessel shown in the figure carries oxygenated blood to the lower thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity of the body?

D

Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a remnant of fetal circulation that is not directly involved in adult circulation?

E

Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is an artery carrying deoxygenated blood?

A

Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left common carotid artery?

not shown in the diagram

Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the right common carotid artery?

B

Which blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left subclavian artery?

G

Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a pouch-like extension that serves to slightly increase the capacity of an atrium?

D

What labeled structure in the figure is the ligamentum arteriosum?

D

Which labeled structure in the figure receives deoxygenated blood from the blood vessel labeled A?

E

What labeled structure in the figure divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries to carry blood to the lungs?

C

Which labeled blood vessel carries oxygenated blood from the right lung back to the heart?

F

What labeled structure in the figure is the descending aorta?

G

What labeled structure in the figure increases the blood volume capacity of an atrium?

left subclavian artery

Which structure in the figure is labeled B?

arch of aorta

Which structure in the figure is labeled C?

left common carotid artery

Which structure in the figure is labeled A?

A

Which labeled structure in the figure acts as the natural pacemaker of the heart?

B

Which labeled structure in the figure is the AV node?

C

Which labeled structure in the figure represents the only potential pathway for conducting action potentials from the atria to the ventricles?

E

Which labeled structure in the figure carries the cardiac action potential directly into the contractile fibers of the ventricular myocardium?

left or right, aorta or pulmonary trunk

Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the _____ ventricle into the _____ each minute.

cardiac reserve

The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the

Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium

What is the function of foramen ovale during fetal life?

ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same

Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which

left ventricle

Which chamber of the heart is surrounded by the thickest layer of myocardium?

auscultation

The process of listening to heart sounds using a stethoscope is referred to as

valves

Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the _______ of the heart.

hypertension

Which condition would lead to an increase in the afterload for the ventricles thus lowering stroke volume and cardiac output?

a higher resting cardiac output

In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A) a higher cardiac reserve
B) a higher resting cardiac output
C) a higher stroke volume
D) hypertrophy of the heart
E) resting bradycardia

vagus

During heart transplants, the _______ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.

cardiomyoplasty

A corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient's own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart.

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