Griswold v. Connecticut
The right to privacy is involved in this case that overturned a Connecticut law preventing Planned Parenthood from giving married persons information or medical advice on how to prevent conception.
Grutter v. Bollinger
This affirmative action case involved a person applying for admission to the University of Michigan's law school. The decision was that race may be a factor in determining admission but not the only factor.
Planned Parenthood of S.E. Pennsylvania v. Casey
Equal protection and the right to privacy were the issues in this case, which was decided that minors needed to have parental consent when obtaining an abortion but wives did not need the consent of the husband.
Engel v. Vitale
Teacher-led prayer in a school district was struck down as violating the establishment clause of the first amendment. It should remain "a private matter."
Korematsu v. the US
Presidential Executive Order 9066 was upheld, stating that the gov't can take away rights of citizens in times of emergency and peril for the good of the country.
US v. Amistad
This case held that Africans had been illegally taken from Africa and that they were not citizens of Cuba or the property of Cubans.
Buckley v. Valeo
In this case involving the Presidential Election Campaign Fund Act, the court determined that money equals speech, and that if a candidate did not take federal funds for campaignin, he/she could not be limited by the act.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Separate but equal facilities remained for over 50 years because of the impact of this case.
Roe v. Wade
A woman's right to privacy was upheld while the court placed limited restrictions on a woman's right to an abortion after her first trimester of pregnancy.
Tinker v. Des Moines
The ruling of this case stated that students in a high school may have freedom of speech and expression as long as it was not creating a disturbance and that a school DOES have the right to prevent such disturbances.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
This case established a 3-part test in determining if non-public schools can receive funding for schools.
Printz v. US
The decision in this case arose from the Brady Act. The court decided that Congress did not have the authority to require states to do background checks on those applying for a permit for a hand gun.
US v. Nixon
This case said that the President of the US is not above the law and is not immune because of executive privilege when a criminal investigation is in progress.
Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
This case overturned a previous case in that this court stated that separate facilities were unequal and begain racial integration in schools.
New York Times v. th US
The court ruled that the Pentagon Papers, if published, would not be harmful to the national security and that there would be no prior restraint used in their publication.
Texas v. Johnson
This famous flag-burning case was decided in favor of the accused.
Regents of California v. Bakke
This original case involving affirmative action decided that race could be used in a university to fill quotas to achieve diversity in a student body.
Miranda v. Arizona
This famous 5, 6, and 14 amendment case established the rights of the accused to be read to a person who is in custody and being questioned for a specific crime.
Abington School v. Schempp
The establishment clause is at the center of this case, which was decided that a public school may not require Bible readings or a prayer in school.
Hazelwood School v. Kuhlmeier
A school newspaper may be censored by an advisor/principal if it is unreasonable and in conflict with civilized values.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Roger B. Taney declared that Congress could not decide where slavery was or was not legal, leading to the Civil War.
Escobedo v. Illinois
This case was decided that when the accused requests a lawyer, he/she must be given one.
Gideon v. Wainwright
An indigent could not afford an attorney, and the court ruled that his 6th and 14th amendment rights to a court-appointed attorney were violated.
Gratz v. Bollinger
Another affirmative action case involving the University of Michigan's admission policy of awarding 20 points to minorities was declared unconstitutional.
US v. Lopez
The Gun-Free School Zone Act of 1990 was declared unconstitutional because Congress had gone beyond its powers to affect interstate commerce.
Schenk v. the US
This case said that speech may be abolished if it creates a clear and present danger, upholding the 1917 Espionage Act.
Gitlow v. New York
This case was decided that people in the US are free to publish pamphlets contrary to the gov't under the 1st Amendment as long as there is not a call to action.
Mapp v. Ohio
The decision in this case stated that illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court, qhich upholds the exclusionary rule under the 4th Amendment