negative violation of norms or deviance that is against the law.
is culturally defined and a recognized violation of social norms. pos. and neg.
culturally defined ideas and standards of desirability and goodness that serve as broad guidelines for social living
are convictions or specific statements that ppl hold to be true.
norms for routine or casual interaction followed everyday not enforced.
widely observed norms- great moral significance- often written into law.
formal standardized norms internalized and codified by society
genetics nature v. nuture biochemistry
focuses on norm violations mood disorders personality disorders
focuses on norm violations and how things are socially defined how deviance is defined and how labels affect individuals
the study of the nature and causes of crime and criminals
sociology of law
studies relationships btwn law and soc.
crime theory reconstruction
tests or constructs theories regarding crime
studying corrections and control of behavior
studying the nature and causes of victimization
swift certain punishments public ppl have free will
sci. meth. ident. cond. and explain them logically - empirical verification-value free and objective
the gluecks and combining theory - initiation of criminality was influenced by internal situations as well as external ones.
derived from structual functionalism
(Everybody has a purpose) The social environment can be delibrately arranged to generate Positive or Negative feelings about people.
the view that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own ends
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
the belief that those with social power are able to impose their values on society as a whole, and these values then define criminal behavior.
mala in se
wrong in and of themselves murder rape
crimes defined by legislation that relfects social conditions statuatory rape, underage drinking
minor or petty crimes
goals of law
1.enforce social control 4.deter criminal behavior
2.discourage revenge 5. punish wrong doing
3.express public opinion and morality 6. create equity
7. maintain social order
FBI collects data from police, prisons, courts # of index crimes # of arrests demographic data change over time
issues with validity for UCR
victims chose not to call police or trust them.
ppl w/out prop. ins. believe it is useless to report theft.
victims fears retaliation
some vic. are crims.
police make mistakes or report crimes differently
collects info about incidents, victims and offenders
Nat. Crime Victim Surveys vic. age, sex, race, time and place of crime inj. etc really detailed
Self report surveys
collect info about recent and past crime, attitudes, values, behaviors about substance abuse history, fam history, involvement in crime. ISSUES forgetting, underestimating, overestimating ?'s format
domestic violence increase decrease in rape
theories of victimization
victim precipitation idea that the victim active or passive participation at that place at the wrong time
something the victim does to provoke the attacker
Routine activities theory
availability of targets- absence of guardians-presence of offenders.
money for damages
deviant place theory
the view that victimization is primarly a function of where people live
reactions to deviance
sanctions- informal punishments
jail, fines comm. service