Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella in Spain
the legal code of ancient Rome
king of France's throne with the help of Joan of Arc. He set the French monarchy on the road to recovery
tax on salt
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
statement of French king Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy.
son of Charles VII strengthened the bureaucracy, kept the nobles under control and promoted trade and agriculture , "the spider" A New Monarch. King who began the centralization of France.
Pope Leo X
de' Medici pope who formed an alliance with the Spanish and Germans against the French.
first Tudor king of England from 1485 to 1509
(1461-1483) First Yorkist King of England, he re-established some stability in England after overthrowing Henry VI.
middle class who were trained in roman law, expelled jews and poors, set up inquisition, The inner circle of nobility that advised Henry VII
court of Star Chamber
Established by Henry VII, it enforced torture to be used to force nobles to confess for something.
justices of the peace
They were responsible to the King for ensuring that the law was upheld, and preserved the "King's Peace."
1485 to 1603, England was ruled by Tudor dynasty believed in divine right. Shrewdly recognized the value of good relations with Parliament
Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.443)
(1492-1503) Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
the translation of the Spanish word conversos, referring to Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity in the fourteenth century in order to avoid persecution.
Muslims who converted to Catholicism after the conquest of Granada to avoid being exiled.
jews who converted to catholicism after the reconquista to avoid being exiled
Holy Roman Empire
group of german nation-states that each acted independent, under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain
A Habsburg emperor who inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandfather Maximilian I.
the theological system of any of the churches of western Christendom that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation
War of Roses
war between House of York and House of lancaster, Yorkists have a white rose as their symbol, Lancaster had a red. Lancaster reigned victorious
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
people flocked to these urban centers after the worst ravages of the plague, the heart of European culture and history and also geographical center of trade
one powerful family under which Florence came under rule. They had made a fortune in trade and banking. Although the Medici did not foster true republican government, they aided the Renaissance by supporting the arts. They had their portraits painted and donated public art to the city to demonstrate their own importance.
They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.
A person who rules alone and has absolute power and are cruel and oppress the rights of people.
Disenfranchised and heavily taxes, bitterly resented their exclusion from power, took over
passing down power through sons, turned home into court, built palace in center of city, palace became patron for jobs and art
a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few
leaders of bands of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy who sold their services to the highest bidder
a region around Rome that was captured from the Lombards by Pepin the Short and given to the pope
family that came to power in milan 1450. They were a Condottiere family: hired mercenaries
A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence from the paganism and the moral vice of the city
French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war
Italy split up among powerful cities; Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V captured Rome in 1527 (how it ended)
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Sack of Rome 1527
Sack carried out by Charles V, went against the League of Cognac; ended Renaissance in Rome
He offered an interpretation of the Renaissance that illustrated the "rebirth" of Western Civilization out of the slums of the "Dark Ages".
Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
Greek and Roman history, literature, and art of the middle ages.
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC) Petrarch admired him and his work.
commissioned by Medici family, promoted humanism and scholarly studies
A form of religious belief and practice involving sudden insight and intense experiences of God
A Roman Catholic monk who wrote "The Imitation of Christ," a book which urged Christians to take Christ as their model and seek perfection in a simple lifestyle.
Part of the northern Renaissance which had an emphasis on early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church. It drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and writings of the Church Fathers. The writings led to criticism of the Church, ultimately the Reformation
a german humanist; helped spread the renaissance into Germany; studied Jewish literature
new testament; significance his writings were studied by Martin Luther
teacher of Thomas More: UTOPIA, where criminals were reformed instead of punished; balance tolerant people who can be good if you teach them the right ways and Erasmus: thought monks were boring, realized how printing press had an impact
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Praise of Folly
satire of clergies world pretensions and ambitions
Philosophy of christ
Erasmus' philosophy of inner piety
France's most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest
French, used new, oil based paints, increased realism, trend spreads to Italy
Van der Weyden
Honors himself as the first Christian artist. Honors the profession of painting. Saint Luke may be a self-protrait.
Flemish (from Flanders); 1385-1441; realism; Adoration of the Lamb; Giovanni Arnolfini and Bride
invented by jan van eyck
German painter who ignored classicism and painted expressively and intensely
This artist was from the North but contributed to the study of perspective and even helped develop multiple vanishing point perspective
"the Ambassador" and his paintings of thomas more, henry VIII, and Erasmus
the french parliment/ composed of the representatives from the three estates of french society/ troubled with voting--1st and 2nd estates could outvote 3rd
the British legislature
concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
livery and maintenance
the practice by which wealthy aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to the servie of their lord since didn't posses a standing army. Nobles to maintain own army
Duke of Burgandy
Duke of Brittany
a tax imposed on ships that enter the US
placing private property in the custody of an officer of the law
which country first established a spice trading route in India?
The Muslim kingdom that Spain later conquested. In 1502, the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled or killed.
A province in Spain
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
Spanish cardinal who introduced reform early on to the Spanish church, making Spain less suceptible to the Reformation
institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics
a 10% sales tax on commercial transactions in Spain. This is an example of one of the ways monarchs could raise money by levying taxes on basic food and clothing