Organic Molecules: From Atoms to Cells

40 terms by heasulli 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Cell

(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

tissue

group of similar cells that perform a particular function

organ

a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function

System

the living body considered as made up of interdependent components forming a unified whole

Organism

Any living thing

Entropy

A measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.

atom

basic unit of matter

valence electron

an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

ion

a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)

covalent bond

bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms

polar

having slightly opposite charges, making the molecule "sticky" and attracted to other charged particles. (ex. water)

cohesion

tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another (ex. water-water)

adhesion

the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition

surface tension

a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by cohesion

capillary action

the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid

hydrogen bond

weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms

metabolism

set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

polymer

large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

monomer

a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

carbohydrate

A class of nutrients made of sugars; these nutrients include sugar and starch. Main source of energy in living things.

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues

monosaccharide

single sugar molecule (monomer)

polysaccharide

long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers

starch

storage form of glucose in plants

lipid

a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water

nonpolar

electrons are shared equally, so there is no overall charge on the molecule, therefore it is not attracted to charged particles (ex. fats)

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

solute

substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution

solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

acid

substances that release hydrogen ions in water.

base

substances that release OH ions in water

pH

a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

alkalinity

the strength of a base

homogenous

Mixture that is the same throughout

electron

negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus

proton

A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

atom

basic unit of matter

meniscus

the curved upper surface of a liquid in a column. caused by cohesion and adhesion.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set