Chapter 6 AP us history

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The First Continental Congress

(1774) Delegates form 12 Colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to decide on action, if any, against Britain should be taken.

Richard Henry Lee

leader of the American Revolution who proposed the resolution calling for independence of the American colonies (1732-1794) signed dec independence

Joseph Galloway

This influential politician in colonial Pennsylvania served in the First Continental Congress in 1774. In an effort to defuse the growing political crisis, he proposed a plan of imperial union with Great Britain in which the British Parliament and a Colonial Congress would both have to approve colonial legislation. But as Americans grew more radical and pushed for independence, the congress as a whole rejected his compromise proposal by a vote of six colonies to five.

The Declaration of Rights and Grievances

declaration to the world that expresses what the colonists considered to be their legal arguments about the question of colonial representation in the Parliament defined reasons for revloution war to britian.

the continental association

enforced ban through elected local committees, would expose violators of the boycott as traitors, eventual government as war progresses

Governor Josiah Martin

Disapproved of contentions, hopelessly tried to stop contention at New Bern, North Carolina govenor After his home was attacked by Whigs on April 24, 1775

Loyalists

American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

Lord Dunmore's war

Governor of Virginia, asked the House of Burgesses to declare a state of war with the hostile Indian nations and order up an elite volunteer militia force for the campaign.The conflict resulted from escalating violence between British colonists, who in accordance with previous treaties were exploring and moving into land south of the Ohio RiverAs a result of this victory, the Indians lost the right to hunt in the area and agreed to recognize the Ohio River as the boundary between Indian lands and the British colonies.

Chief Dragging Canoe

leader of the Cherokee Indians, launched a series of attacks on outlying white settlements in the summer of 1776. Through battle and treaty, the Cherokee were forced to give up most of their land to the Americans. involved lord dunmores war

William Dawes

American patriot who rode with Paul Revere to warn that the British were advancing on Lexington and Concord (1745-1799)

Paul Revere

American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)

Samuel Prescott

The patriot, along with William Dawes and Paul Revere, warned the colonists that the British were coming before Lexington and Concord. was a doctor

Battles of Lexington and Concord

These battles initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston

seige of Boston

Capture at Fort Ticonderoga by Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Men. Brought 40 + cannons back to Boston. Dorchester Heights and the escape of Howe to Nova Scotia.

Battle of Breeds Hill

took place on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War; (AKA battle of bunker hill) During the Siege of Boston in the early American Revolutionary War British successfully captured Charlestown Peninsula, many casualties suffered on both sides.

Lord North

Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts passed coercive acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.

The Second Continental Congress

Representatives from each of the colonies met in Phillidelphia to start an official government and to build an army and a navy (They decided that George Washington would lead their army). Effect They were able to organize a government and an army.

George Washington

Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.

Sir William Howe

British commander, mistakes cost Britain War, he abandoned his battle plan, allowed Washington to regroup, didn't attack at Valley Forge, some believed that he sympathized with colonists and didn't want to win the war. He liked Americans and was known for partying; especially in the winter.

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man

Thomas Jefferson

Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

New York Campaign

was a series of battles for control of New York City and the state of New Jersey in the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe and the Continental Army under General George Washington in 1776 and the winter months of 1777. Howe was successful in driving Washington out of New York City, but overextended his reach into New Jersey, and ended the active campaign season in January 1777 with only a few outposts near the city. The British held New York for the rest of the war, using it as a base for expeditions against other targets.

The Crisis

written by t. paine, when he retreated with Washington's army through NJ. it urged americans to support the army.

Battle of Trenton

On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Deleware River. The next morning, they suprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians.

Battle of Princeton

A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.

The Continental Army

This was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 15, 1775, the army was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their struggle against the rule of Great Britain. This army was in conjunction with local militias and other troops that remained under control of the individual states. General George Washington was the Commander-in-Chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. The remaining units possibly formed the nucleus of what was to become the United States Army.

Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Battles of Brandywine Creek and Germantown

(other battle a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War, was fought on October 4, 1777, at this place, Pennsylvania. The British victory in this battle ensured that Philadelphia, the capital of the self-proclaimed United States of America, would remain in British hands throughout the winter of 1777-1778.

John Burgoyne's Battle for New England

brtish officer During the Saratoga campaign he surrendered his army of 5,000 men to the American troops. Appointed to command a force that would capture Albany and end the rebellion, he advanced from Canada but soon found himself surrounded and outnumbered. He fought two battles at Saratoga, but was forced to open negotiations with Horatio Gates

The Battle of Saratoga

October 17, 1777 - The battle took place in New York. The British were outnumbered and were forced to surrender. The colonist victory was a turning point in the war because it inspired the French to help the colonists fight the British.

The Battle of Oriskany

fought on August 6, 1777, was one of the bloodiest battles in the North American theater of the American Revolutionary War and a significant engagement Loyalist and Indian force ambushed Herkimer's force in a small valley about six miles (10 km) east of Fort Stanwix, near the present-day village of Oriskany, New York. During the battle, Herkimer was mortally wounded. The battle cost the Patriots approximately 450 casualties, while the Loyalists and Indians lost approximately 150 dead and wounded.

Joseph Brant

Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution. (p. 581)

Ben Franklin

highly respected scientist, one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. helped found UPENN, served as agent in london, and Pennsylvania, became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. served as ambassador to france during the war, helped write the declaration of independence, constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution

The Franco-American alliance

alliance of americans and french in revloutionary war

Sir Henry Clinton

He replaced Howe in 1778, and then decided to move his army back to NY, and order Cornwallis to return to Yorktown after a bad defeat. Washington trapped him and he surrendered

Nathaniel Greene

Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".commander of the Southern Department of the Continental forces

Battle of Cowpens

An overwhelming victory by American Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. was a decisive victory by American Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British.

The Battle of Yorktown

This was the winning battle of the Revolution and what made the French alliance so important. We had them cornered by both land and by sea thanks to the French.

The Treaty of Paris 1783

Ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to recognized the United States as an independent nation

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