Combo set for Exam 3! :)

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Finding everything I can under chapters I am studying for. http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205003788.pdf http://blog.lib.umn.edu/clar0514/academic/crimedeviance.pdf

deviance

violation of a social norm

conformity

adherence to social norms

range of tolerance

a scope of behaviors considered acceptable and defined as conformity

extreme deviance

beliefs, behaviors, or physical traits that are so unacceptable that they elicit extremely strong negative reactions

crime

any act that violates a criminal law

hate crimes

criminal acts against people and their property that are motivated by racial and ethnic prejudices and other social biases.

stigma

any characteristic that sets people apart and discredits or disqualifies them from full social acceptance and participation

medical model

views deviance as analogous to illness

pornography

sexually explicit materials intended solely for sexual arousal

social pathology

a problem that potentially threatens the survival of society

strain theories

the view that deviance is a result of the tensions or strain experienced by people because of their position in the social structure

anomie

a state of social strain, normative confusion, or rapid change in norms when people's behavior is no longer restrained by conventional norms

conflict theories of deviance

views deviance as arising when groups with power attempt to impose their norms and values on less powerful groups

elite deviance

includes all aspects of white-collar crimes as well as other deviant acts perpetrated by those in power

labeling theories

view deviance and conformity primarily as labels assigned to certain people and certain acts

primary deviance

when an individual violates a norm and is viewed as deviant but rejects the deviant label and maintains a conformist conception of himself or herself

secondary deviance

the internalization of a deviant label and the assumption of a deviant role

social learning theories

contend that all behavior (including deviance) is learned through social interaction.

social control theories

contend that deviance is normal and conformity must be explained

social control

mechanisms people use to enforce prevailing social norms

deterrence theory

states that deviance will be deterred if negative social sanctions (especially punishment) are perceived to be certain, swift, and severe.

sexting

sending nude photos of oneself via cell phone or other mobile device

cyber crimes

computer-related crimes conducted over the Internet

functionalist perspective to deviance

Durkheim; Merton's Theory of Anomie (gap between socially acceptable goals [money & success] and structural means to those goals [education & employment])

conflict perspective to deviance

views deviance as arising when groups with power attempt to impose their norms and values on less powerful groups; reinforces inequality and define as deviant any behavior that threatens those in power (laws that protect property, against laws to "beg" & "hitchhike")

symbolic interactionist perspective to deviance

labeling theory -- views deviance and conformity as labels assigned to certain people and certain acts; people who are labeled as deviant and treated as deviant become deviant.

Which statement is MOST accurate in describing deviance and conformity

Deviance and conformity are relative terms based on a number of societal variables.

What type of stigma is experienced by ethnic and racial minorities, gays and lesbians, and members of the Pagans motorcycle gang?

tribal stigma

Who was the sociologist who extensively addressed the types of stigma individuals experience and noted that stigmatized individuals are often seen as being "not quite human."

Erving Goffman

Of the following variables, which is perhaps the most influential in deviance and conformity?

The cultural context in which the behavior occurs.

What was the condition identified by a 19th century Italian surgeon that attributed deviance to a package of genetic traits that distinguished violent and habitual criminals from the "normal" noncriminal population?

atavism

What does sociological research suggest as the major reason for banning gangsta rap that includes lyrics promoting suicide, racism, and murder?

The ban is motivated more by race and social class than by genuine concern for its potential effects.

What is the definitive conclusion regarding the effects of reading and viewing pornography based on the most recent sociological studies?

There is no definitive conclusion regarding the effects of reading and viewing pornography.

In a study by the American Medical Association in 1989, what media form was found to have the greatest influence on teenagers?

music

What sociological perspective is being addressed when the negative consequences of deviance are stressed, such as people being harmed, norms being threatened, and the emotional cost involved?

the structural functionalist perspective

Who was one of the first social scientists to conduct experiments that attempted to link television violence to aggressive behavior in children?

Albert Bandura

Who were the two sociologists who developed a set of five techniques of neutralization that permit "normal" individuals to engage in deviant behavior but neutralize the stigmatizing affect of their behavior?

Gresham Sykes and David Matza

What was the form of suicide Durkheim identified as occurring because of extreme social constraint that is the underlying cause of suicidal love pacts and suicide among slaves?

fatalistic suicide

What were the two main issues in the typology of adaptive behavior that Robert Merton developed in strain theory?

socially accepted goals and culturally approved means to achieve them

What mode of adaptive behavior rejects both socially accepted goals as well as the culturally approved means to achieve them?

retreatism

Who developed the Pyrrhic defeat theory and applied it as a plausible explanation for the failure of the criminal justice system in the United States?

Jeffrey Reiman

What is the general category of deviance that includes all aspects of white-collar crime as well as other deviant acts perpetuated by those in power?

elite deviance

What theory of social control states that deviance will be effectively reduced if negative social sanctions are perceived to be swift, certain, and severe?

deterrence theory

Of the following punishments, which is BEST classified as specific deterrence?

the death penalty

Which group of punishments serves as the best example of informal social control?

gossip, ridicule, ostracism

Which of the following statements best describes Emile Durkheim's view of crime and its effect on society?

Crime is a normal part of all societies and all societies institutionalize sanctions to control criminals.

When examining the "Crime Clock," which of the following crimes is MOST likely to occur in a 24 hour period?

motor vehicle theft

What is the system called that ranks nations in a hierarchy based on their access to the world's wealth, power, and prestige?

Global Stratification

In which classification of nation is world stratification most acutely felt and has the greatest effect on its people?

poorer nations in the low-income classification

In the Three World Model what qualities best describe the Second World Nations?

socialist economy, communistic

What is the central factor used by the United Nations Development Program to determine the rank of nations?

the average income of a nation's citizens

Which of the following groups of nations are all high-income nations?

Italy, Germany, New Zealand

What was the world event that swept away most of the Second World Nations?

the collapse of the Soviet Union

A large percentage of the population in Ethiopia and Afghanistan make insufficient money to afford food and other necessities of life. In view of this, which phrase best describes these people in Ethiopia and Afghanistan?

They are in absolute poverty.

What country has the largest population in the world today?

China

Which nation has the highest per capita income?

Luxembourg

What is the population of the world expected to be by the year 2100?

twelve billion

How does Modernization Theory address the issue of global stratification?

It recognizes global development as a process in which advanced industrial nations and technology help poor nations advance.

With what sociological perspective are colonialism, world systems theory, and dependency theory most aligned?

the conflict approach

Using Dependency Theory, what form of dependency perpetuates former colonial practices and is sustained by most favored nation treaties?

trade dependency

In World Systems Theory, nations such as Afghanistan and Rawanda that are at the very edge of the world economy and have very little to offer it are called

periphery nations

What was the goal of the New World Information and Communication Order?

the decolonialization of information and monitoring of negative media stereotypes

Based on the textbook, what is the world's largest corporation based on market value?

General Motors

What is the global city that has been called "the capital of Latin America."

Miami, FL

Guidelines that govern our thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors and which are fundamental to explaining deviance are called ____________.

norms

The collective term for expected behaviors, such as saying "excuse me" after bumping into someone or paying one's income tax by the 15th of April, is ___________.

prescriptive norms

Informal norms that reflect cultural traditions and guide everyday interactions, such as manners at meal time and choice of attire, are called ____________.

Folkways

Beliefs such as "we are a nation of laws, not men" and "no one is above the law" are examples of a typology of deviant behavior called ____________

the normative approach

What is true about conformity and social norms?

when people conform to social norms, we are able to anticipate what others will do in certain situations

Are deviance and crime equal?

No. Although all deviance is crime, not all crime is deviance.

The category of stigma that includes people who are discredited because they are members of a socially disapproved category or group is known as ______________.

a tribal stigma

What is the oldest theoretical explanation for deviant behavior?

dEMONology

The Italian surgeon who developed the theoretical explanation that atavism was the cause of deviance was ____________.

Cesare Lombroso

During the 1970s, the popular therapy for inmates was to refer to them as residents, define the symptoms of their criminality, determine a prognosis for their return to society, and develop a treatment plan to make it happen. Under which sociological explanation does such an approach qualify?

the medical model

What is the purpose of the "V-chip"?

It allows parents to block specific programs from television reception.

Whose studies (using the Bobo Doll) were among the first attempts to link television violence with aggressive behavior in children?

Albert Bandura

Which nineteenth century sociologist believed that deviant behavior was a social pathology that threatened society?

Herbert Spencer

What was the form of suicide Durkheim identified as occurring in "folk societies" and other closely bonded small groups?

altruistic suicide

Which sociologist developed a theory to explain deviance that addressed socially accepted goals and culturally approved means to achieve them?

Robert Merton

What mode of adaptive behavior accepts and pursues socially accepted goals but rejects culturally approved means to achieve them?

innovation

What is the general category of deviance that includes all aspects of white-collar crime as well as other deviant acts perpetuated by those in power?

elite deviance

Based on the theories of Edwin Lemert, what is it called when an individual violates a norm and is viewed as deviant but rejects the deviant label and maintains a conformist conception of himself or herself?

primary deviance

Which sociological theory used to explain deviance is best illustrated by the phrase "birds of a feather flock together"?

differential association theory

Which is NOT one of Sykes and Matza's five techniques of neutralization

appeal to the condemners

Punishments that discourage the individual from committing similar acts in the future are known as ______________.

specific deterrence

Although people fear violent crimes the most, they are far more likely to become victims of which kind of crime?

property offenses

Which of the following terms is also used to describe public order offenses?

victimless crime

Over 1,000 U.S. inmates have been executed since the death penalty was reinstated in ________.

1977

The most common sentence for nonserious offenses and petty property crimes is ____________.

probation

Conformity

Adherence to social norms Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

Deviance

Violation of social norm. Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society

anomie

state of social strain, normative confusion or rapid change in norms when people's behavior is no longer restrained by conventional norms

Crime

Any act that violates a criminal law

Cyber Crime

Computer related crimes conducted over the internet

Conflict theories of deviance

View deviance as arising when groups with power attempt to impose their norms and values on less powerful groups

Deterrence theory

States that deviance will be effectively deterred if negative social sanctions (especially punishment) are perceived to be certain, swift and severe.

Elite Deviance

Includes all aspects of white collar crime as well as other deviant acts perpetrated by those in power.

Extreme deviance

Beliefs, behaviors, or physical traits that are so unacceptable that they elicit extremely strong negative reactions.

Hate crimes

Criminal acts against people and their property that are motivated by racial and ethnic prejudices and other social biases

Labeling theories

View defiance and conformity primarily as labels assigned to certain people and certain acts.

Medical Model

Views deviance as analogous to illness

pornography

Sexually explicit materials intended solely for sexual arousal

primary deviance

When an individual violates a norm and is viewed as deviant but rejects the deviant label and maintains a conformist conception of himself or herself.

Range of Tolerance

A scope of behavior considered acceptable and defined as conformity

Stigma

Any characteristic that sets people apart and discredits or disqualifies them from full social acceptance and participation

Social learning theories

The idea that much human behavior is learned from modeling others

Social Pathology

A problem that potentially threatens the survival of society

Strain theories

The view that deviance is a result of the tensions or strain experienced by people because of their position in the social structure.

Social control theories

Contend that deviance is normal and conformity must be explained

social control

Mechanisms people use to enforce prevailing social norms

Secondary deviance

The internalization of a deviant label and the assumption of a deviant role. Social learning theories contend that all behavior (including deviance) is learned thru social interaction.

Furman v. Georgia

The Court's decision forced states and the national legislature to rethink their statutes for capital offenses to assure that the death penalty would not be administered in a capricious or discriminatory manner.

Folkways

in sociology, are norms for routine or casual interaction. This includes ideas about appropriate greetings and proper dress in different situations

Mores

fixed customs or manners; moral attitudes to refer to norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance

normative approach

Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.

objective approach

the assumption that truth is singular and is accessible through unbiased sensory observation; committed to uncovering cause-and-effect relationships.

Norms are what?

Prescriptive

What is prescriptive?

They tell us what we should do.

What are other norms?

They are proscriptive

What is proscriptive?

they tell us what we should not do.

Examples of proscriptive

Informally, no feet on tables, formally don't kill.

Laws

which are formal rules enacted and enforced by the state.

Folkways and mores are informal norms and laws though are ?

Formally codified laws not necessarily more important.

Normative Approach

Emphasis on norms in defining deviance and conformity illustrates how members of society evaluate behavior in reference to some preestablished standard of behavior. It also implies that there is some set of absolute norms the violation of which automatically constitutes deviance.

extreme deviance

Beliefs, behaviors, or physical traits that are so unacceptable that hey elicit extremely strong negative reactions.

What are examples of extreme deviance?

extreme tattooing and body piercing, alien kidnappings, being overly obese, believing in white supremacy, endorsing adult child sexual contact, terrorism or cannibalism

Ruth Cavan

created a behavioral continuum model that illustrates how societal members create an acceptable range of tolerance around a social norm.

Cavan's model shows over conformity and under-conformity can be viewed as what?

Deviance.

Deviance and conformity are not absolute what?

terms. They are what we apply to people and behaviors based on a wide variety of circumstances.

What is considered conformity at one point in time may be viewed as deviance during another.

Examples are folkways governing fashion and grooming norms that change over time.

Example: Place is where behavior occurs is also an important determinant of whether an act is viewed as appropriate or deviant.

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