single celled fertilized egg called a:
when cells develop unique characteristics they are said to:
forms the outer boundary of the cell, regulates movement of substance into and out of cell
nucleus is enclosed by its own membrane call the:
fluid material between the nuclear envelope and the plasma membrane.
plasma membrane has unique chemical and physical characteristics which permit it to regulate what substances can get into or out of the cell
a double layer of phospholipids whose orientation is due to their amphiphilic nature.
molecules help stablilize the plasma membrane.
proteins that are not chemially active but serve to support cell structure.
proteins that have unique 3-D shapes and are chemically very active.
these span the width of the membrane, go all the way through from the outside of the cell to inside of the cell, many have hollow centers
FUNCTION OF INTEGRAL PROTEINS
act as carriers that move substances across the membrane ECF-ICF
don't go all the way through the membrane, may be inside or outside.
proteins with carbohydrate chains attached
CAMs = CELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULES
proteins on cell surfaces that allow them to stick to other cells, responsible for allowing white blood cells to attach to a damaged tissue and initiate inflammation.
of cancer = the spread of cancerous cells from one organ to a more distant one.
there is a difference in the number and type of ions that are found along the inner and outer membrane surface, this creates what is known as an:
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
measurable voltage across the membrane of a resting nerve or muscle cell that is called the:....cell in this state is said to be polarized
alterations in the distributionof ions at the membrane surfaces will cause a change in the voltage, the cell is said to be:
the depolarization that initiates a flow of electricial current that is known as:
refers to the idea that the membrane restricts passage of some substances and permits passage of others into or out of the cell.
CELL PERMEABILITY DEPENDS ON :
solubility, molecular size, electrical charge
lipid solluble substances pass easily through lipid bilayer; water-soluble substances DO NOT pass must be moved across via membrane proteins
large molecules have a hard time
the phospholipid bilayer is impermeable to all charged molecules and ions, these will require assistance in the form of integral proteins
the water which is in the cytosol or ECF
the stuff that is dissolved in that water.
the solution with the HIGHER concentration of solute than the other solution.
the solution with the LOWER solute concentration than the other.
used when both solutions have the same concentration of solute.
the movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
does not require ATP
does require energy from ATP
the tendency of atoms, molecules, or ions in a liquid or air solution to move spontaneously from where there are more of them to where there are fewer of them.
MOVING DOWN A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
simple diffusion- the diffusing substance is said to:
greater the difference in the amount of the diffusing substance, the faster diffusion will occur.
molecules that connot get through the phospholipid bilayer may move across the membrane by traveling through specific integral proteins that act as carriers or transport proteins.
if all the carrier proteins for glucose are being used it is said taht transport is occurring at the maximum rate possible.
movement out of cell
movement into cells
RECEPTOR MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
involves receptor sites on membrane proteins that are specific for a particular substance taht the cell wants to take in.
all the cells in the human body except for the sperm and the egg
in the nucleus of each somatic cell there are 46 separate strands of...
the process by which the somatic cells divide and form repllicas of themselves
study of cancer
spread of cancerous cells away from their point of origin
cancerous, abnormally dividing cells
not cancerous, cells don't spread
the term used to refer either to the sperm or the egg
the 2-stage process that occurs in the ovaries or testes and results in the formation of gametes that have 1 of each chromosome
cell that can, with biochemical instructiuons, become any of the 260 types of cells our bodies r made of
the force that drives filtration is:
term that refers to what has been filtered through the spm is:
RBCs exposed to a hypotonic solution, water will flow into the cells and can actually cause them to burst
RBCs exposed to a hypertonic solution, water will flow out of the cells, causing them to shrivel up.
RBCs EXPOSED TO AN ISOTONIC SOLUTION
will not gain or lose h2o