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1) What does a root do?

Absorbs minerals and water.

2) What consists of one main vertical root which gives rise to lateral roots?

A taproot system.

3) What does the taproot system do?

Often stores organic nutrients that the plant consumes during flowering and fruit production.

4) Why are root crops such as carrots, turnips, and sugar beets harvested before they flower?

Because the taproot system stores organic nutrients in the root part.

5) What is the system where no roots stand out as the main one?

A fibrous root system.

6) Why are grassroots particularly useful?

They hold the top soil in place, preventing erosion.

7) What is an organ system consisting of nodes (the points at which leaves are attached), and internodes (the stem segments between nodes).

The stem.

8) What is in the angle formed by each leaf and the stem?

An axillary bud.

9) What is an axillary bud?

A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, commonly called a branch.

10) What happens if the terminal bud is removed?

Stimulates the growth of axillary buds resulting in more lateral shoots. That is why pruning trees and shrubs and pinching back houseplants will make them bushier.

11) What is a horizontal stem that grows along the surface of the soil?

A stolon.

12) What enable a plant to reproduce asexually, as plantlets form at nodes?

The runners.

13) What is an example of a plant with a stolon?

A strawberry.

14) What is a horizontal stem that grows just below the surface of the soil?

A rhizome.

15) What is an example of a rhizome?

The edible base of a ginger plant.

16) What is an enlarged end of a rhizome that has become specialized for storing food?

A tuber.

17) What is an example of a tuber?

A potato.

18) What is a vertical, underground shoot consisting mostly of the enlarged bases of leaves that store food?

A bulb.

19) What is an example of a bulb?

An onion.

20) What is the main photosynthetic organ of most plants, although green stems also perform photosynthesis?

The leaf.

21) What do leaves generally consist of?

A flattened blade and a stalk (the petiole).

22) What leaves (like grass) have parallel major veins that run the length of the leaf blade.

Monocot leaves.

23) What leaves (like trees and most other plants) generally have a multi-branched network of major veins?

Eudicot leaves.

24) What are modified leaves which allow a pea plant to cling for support?

Tendrils.

25) What are modified leaves which serve as protection for a cactus?

Spines.

26) What do succulent plants, such as the ice plant, have?

Storage leaves for storing water.

27) The red parts of a poinsettia plant are often mistaken for petals but are actually modified leaves called what?

Bracts.

28) What do bracts attract?

Pollinators.

29) Those leaves which produce tiny plantlets, which fall off the leaf and take root in the soil are modified for what?

Reproduction.

30) The dermal tissue in non woody plants, which usually consists of a single layer of tightly packed cells is called?

Epidermis

31) Name the protective tissues in woody plants that replace the epidermis in older regions of the stems and roots.

Periderm

32) In the epidermis of leaves and most stems what waxy coating prevents water loss?

Cuticle

33) In plants, vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called what?

Xylem

34) Name the transport tissue of a plant that delivers nutrients such as sugars from where they are made (usually leaves) to where they are needed (usually roots).

Phloem

35) In plants, vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called

Phloem

36) Ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue is called?

Pith

37) Ground tissue that is external to the vascular tissue is called?

Cortex

38) How long does it take Annuals to complete their lifecycle (from germination to flowering to seed production to death)?

A single year or less

39) How long do Biennials generally live?

2 Years

40) Perennials live many years and include...?

Trees

41) What are the embryonic tissues that plants have called?

Meristems

42) What tissues of the plant are located at the tips of the roots and in the buds of the shoots, and enable the plant to grow in length (primary growth)?

Apical Meristems

43) What tissues of the plant allow for growth in thickness? Also known as secondary growth.

Lateral Meristems

44) In woody plants, the lateral meristems are called_____, meaning an added layer of xylem (wood).

Vascular cambium

45) What replaces the epidermis with periderm, which is thicker and tougher?

Cork Cambium

46) Vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called?

Xylem

47) The term used to describe "pushing the xylem sap upward especially at night" is called what?

Root Pressure

48) Root pressure can only force water upward a few meters, and it cannot keep pace with transpiration after sunrise. Xylem sap is pulled upward. This is attributed to what biological term?

Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism.

49) What is the vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant?

Phloem

50) Gas exchange(transpiration) in plants occurs through structures called what?

Stomata

51) What do guard cells do?

Balance water conservation during photosynthesis

52) What essential mineral nutrients from the soil, do plants extract?

Phosphorus and Nitrogen

53) What is a deficiency of magnesium, a component of chlorophyll, that causes yellowing of the leaves?

Chlorosis

54) What is a mixture of rock particles, living organisms, and humus?

Topsoil

55) What is the remains of partially decayed organic material called?

Humus

56) What does the texture of topsoil depend on?

The size of its particles

57) What are the most fertile soils, that are made up of equal amounts of sand, silt(medium-size particles) and clay?

Loams

58) When farmers harvest of crop, what is removed?

Essential elements

59) Each year, soil fertility diminishes unless what is used to replace these lost minerals?

Fertilizers

60) What are commercially produced fertilizers are enriched with?

Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)

61) What are the commercially produced fertilizers, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K), labelled with?

A three-number code called the N-P-K ratio, indicating the content of these minerals

62) What are thousands of acres of topsoil lost to each year in the United States alone?

Water and wind erosion

63) What certain precautions are used to prevent loss of topsoil?

Planting rows of trees as windbreaks, terracing hillside crops, and cultivating in a contour patterns.

64) What crops provide good ground cover and protect the soil better than corn?

Alfalfa and wheat

65) What mineral has the greatest effect on plant growth and crop yields?

Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)

66) What is nitrogen-fixing bacteria?

The decomposition of dead vegetation by certain kinds of bacteria

67) What improves the quality of the soil?

Crop rotation

68) In this practice, a non-legume such as corn is planted one year, and the following year alfalfa or some other legume is planted to restore the concentration of nitrogen in the soil. What is this practice called?

Crop rotation

69) What group of plants has mutually dependent relationships with animals?

Angiosperms

70) How do angiosperms disperse their seeds?

They disperse their seeds by producing fleshy, edible fruits that are consumed by animals which defecate the seeds, seeds that sometimes attach to animals or seeds may catch the wind.

71) What do most angiosperms depend on for pollination and see dispersal?

Insects, birds, or mammals

72) What do most land animals depend on for food?

Angiosperms

73) What do gymnosperms supply?

Most of our lumber and paper.

74) What do flowering plants provide?

Nearly all of our food.

75) What refers to innovations in the use of plants or substances obtained from plants to make products that are useful to humans?

Plant Biotechnology

76) What is a form of biotechnology that refers to the use of genetically modified organisms that produce beneficial results?

Genetic engineering

77) What contain genes from particular bacteria that produce a protein that repels insect pests?

Transgenic Crops

78) One concern that certain molecules within a plant cause allergies in humans is caused by what process?

Plant genetic engineering

79) What is the concern about allergy molecules being transferred to a plant?

People are concerned that the plant will be used for food.

80) Who removes the genes that encode for the allergenic proteins from soybeans and crops?

Biotechnologists

81) The fear is that the undesirable weeds will become resistant to insects, creating a ______ that would be difficult to control in the fields.

Superweed

82) Because of "superweeds" efforts are underway to breed what into transgenic crops?

Male sterility

83) These plants will still produce seeds and fruit if pollinated, but they will produce no _____.

Pollen

84) According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of chloroplasts, photosynthetic prokaryotic cells were...?

Were incorporated by larger cells

85) Plants have always had _______, even before they went from living in the oceans to living on land.

Chloroplasts

86) What are the five key adaptations that plants had to make in order to live on land?

Flowers, dependent embryos, gametangia, vascular tissues, and seeds

87) The key step in adaptation of seed plants to dry land was the evolution of what?

wind dispersed pollen

88) What are the two dominant types of seed plants?

Conifers and angiosperms

89) What is the male organ in which pollen grains develop?

Anther

90) What structure contains spores?

A male sporangium

91) What is a stigma in a plant?

The female part of the carpal that receives the pollen.

92) What part of the plant is the protective chamber where the eggs develop?

...

93) Pollen grains develop in the _____ and are trapped by the ______.

Anther and stigma

94) What are the green leaves that enclose the flower before the flower opens?

Sepals

95) What is usually the most striking part of the flower, and functions to attract hummingbirds and insects?

Petals

96) Plants dependent on nocturnal pollinators typically have flowers that are ......?

Highly scented

97) What does an insect do when it comes to collect the nectar, and picks up some pollen grains?

The insect carries the pollen grains to the stigma of another flower.

98) What usually occurs immediately after pollination in angiosperms?

Fertilization

99) What consists of a stalk with the stigma at the top (which catches the pollen) and an ovary at the base?

Carpel

100) What is the protective chamber where the eggs develop?

Ovary

101) The ripened ovary of a flower, which adapted to disperse seeds, is called a _______.

Fruit

102) Fruits protect and help do what?

Disperse seeds

103) These develop within fruits, and the fruits develop at the base of the flower.

Seeds

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