3) What does the taproot system do?
Often stores organic nutrients that the plant consumes during flowering and fruit production.
4) Why are root crops such as carrots, turnips, and sugar beets harvested before they flower?
Because the taproot system stores organic nutrients in the root part.
7) What is an organ system consisting of nodes (the points at which leaves are attached), and internodes (the stem segments between nodes).
9) What is an axillary bud?
A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, commonly called a branch.
10) What happens if the terminal bud is removed?
Stimulates the growth of axillary buds resulting in more lateral shoots. That is why pruning trees and shrubs and pinching back houseplants will make them bushier.
18) What is a vertical, underground shoot consisting mostly of the enlarged bases of leaves that store food?
20) What is the main photosynthetic organ of most plants, although green stems also perform photosynthesis?
22) What leaves (like grass) have parallel major veins that run the length of the leaf blade.
23) What leaves (like trees and most other plants) generally have a multi-branched network of major veins?
27) The red parts of a poinsettia plant are often mistaken for petals but are actually modified leaves called what?
29) Those leaves which produce tiny plantlets, which fall off the leaf and take root in the soil are modified for what?
30) The dermal tissue in non woody plants, which usually consists of a single layer of tightly packed cells is called?
31) Name the protective tissues in woody plants that replace the epidermis in older regions of the stems and roots.
33) In plants, vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called what?
34) Name the transport tissue of a plant that delivers nutrients such as sugars from where they are made (usually leaves) to where they are needed (usually roots).
35) In plants, vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called
38) How long does it take Annuals to complete their lifecycle (from germination to flowering to seed production to death)?
A single year or less
42) What tissues of the plant are located at the tips of the roots and in the buds of the shoots, and enable the plant to grow in length (primary growth)?
43) What tissues of the plant allow for growth in thickness? Also known as secondary growth.
44) In woody plants, the lateral meristems are called_____, meaning an added layer of xylem (wood).
46) Vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called?
47) The term used to describe "pushing the xylem sap upward especially at night" is called what?
48) Root pressure can only force water upward a few meters, and it cannot keep pace with transpiration after sunrise. Xylem sap is pulled upward. This is attributed to what biological term?
49) What is the vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant?
53) What is a deficiency of magnesium, a component of chlorophyll, that causes yellowing of the leaves?
57) What are the most fertile soils, that are made up of equal amounts of sand, silt(medium-size particles) and clay?
59) Each year, soil fertility diminishes unless what is used to replace these lost minerals?
60) What are commercially produced fertilizers are enriched with?
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)
61) What are the commercially produced fertilizers, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K), labelled with?
A three-number code called the N-P-K ratio, indicating the content of these minerals
62) What are thousands of acres of topsoil lost to each year in the United States alone?
Water and wind erosion
63) What certain precautions are used to prevent loss of topsoil?
Planting rows of trees as windbreaks, terracing hillside crops, and cultivating in a contour patterns.
65) What mineral has the greatest effect on plant growth and crop yields?
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)
66) What is nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
The decomposition of dead vegetation by certain kinds of bacteria
68) In this practice, a non-legume such as corn is planted one year, and the following year alfalfa or some other legume is planted to restore the concentration of nitrogen in the soil. What is this practice called?
70) How do angiosperms disperse their seeds?
They disperse their seeds by producing fleshy, edible fruits that are consumed by animals which defecate the seeds, seeds that sometimes attach to animals or seeds may catch the wind.
71) What do most angiosperms depend on for pollination and see dispersal?
Insects, birds, or mammals
75) What refers to innovations in the use of plants or substances obtained from plants to make products that are useful to humans?
76) What is a form of biotechnology that refers to the use of genetically modified organisms that produce beneficial results?
77) What contain genes from particular bacteria that produce a protein that repels insect pests?
78) One concern that certain molecules within a plant cause allergies in humans is caused by what process?
Plant genetic engineering
79) What is the concern about allergy molecules being transferred to a plant?
People are concerned that the plant will be used for food.
80) Who removes the genes that encode for the allergenic proteins from soybeans and crops?
81) The fear is that the undesirable weeds will become resistant to insects, creating a ______ that would be difficult to control in the fields.
82) Because of "superweeds" efforts are underway to breed what into transgenic crops?
83) These plants will still produce seeds and fruit if pollinated, but they will produce no _____.
84) According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of chloroplasts, photosynthetic prokaryotic cells were...?
Were incorporated by larger cells
85) Plants have always had _______, even before they went from living in the oceans to living on land.
86) What are the five key adaptations that plants had to make in order to live on land?
Flowers, dependent embryos, gametangia, vascular tissues, and seeds
87) The key step in adaptation of seed plants to dry land was the evolution of what?
wind dispersed pollen
95) What is usually the most striking part of the flower, and functions to attract hummingbirds and insects?
96) Plants dependent on nocturnal pollinators typically have flowers that are ......?
97) What does an insect do when it comes to collect the nectar, and picks up some pollen grains?
The insect carries the pollen grains to the stigma of another flower.
99) What consists of a stalk with the stigma at the top (which catches the pollen) and an ovary at the base?