sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Produced by electric power generation (burning fossil fuels/coal), which produces sulfic acid and nitric acid. Has a pH of 4.3. Acid rain causes respiratory disease, toxic metals in drinking water, decrease of atmospheric visibility, loss of fish species, leaching of nutrients from soil, and kills trees.
"Alley cropping" crops planted between trees. Trees provide shade, retain water, provide mulch.
Land ethicist who said we are ethically bound to preserve wild nature. U of Wisconsin, founded Wilderness Society.
98% ice. 70% of world freshwater, 90% of world ice. Core ice shows that today's CO2 is highest in 650k years. average temp is -49*C
coal=54% of today's electricity production. Smog, soot, acid rain, global warming are biggest air polluters in US. CA is most polluted, Southern States are least.
create own food (plants, grass, trees)
consume autotrophs for food/energy
range of life forms and life maintaining processes. Loss of biodiversity=reduction in natural ecosystem services, adaptability of species to altered environments.
aka nutrient cycles. Cycle of natural abiotic resources: water, nitrogen, sulfur, carbon.
evaporation (ocean)>condensation (clouds)>transport (wind)>precipitation (rain)> infiltration (soil)>runoff (back to sea)
78% of atmosphere. attaches to soil, used by plants, back to gas when plant dies. Smog, ammonia.
all organisms nee. reacts with chemicals in atmosphere and with water. Causes erosion, acid rain.
cycled by water, earth's crust, living organisms.
major, classified, recognized community with well-recognized plant and animal life. based on rain/climate.
[Coniferous] evergreen (tundra>trees). Cold winter, pleasant summer.
[Taiga] largest land biome. freezing winters, warm summers.
[Deciduous] "turns" with seasons. All 4 seasons.
[Tropical Rain] 2% of earth. 50-80% of land species.
[Temperate Rain] cooler than rainforest, less diverse, but humid.
[Boreal/Polar] sub-arctic, tall coniferous trees, few species.
<25cm/10in of rain per year. Sparse, spaced out low vegetation, few animals. Dormant in dry periods.
grazing/browsing animals. not enough moisture for trees.
[Chaparral] can withstand/regenerate after fire.
[Tropical] long dry season, low/med rain, wide belt along Equator
[Temperate] cold winter, hot/dry summer, uneven rainfall, fertile soil
[Tundra] polar, south of arctic ice cap. Short growing period, no trees. Permafrost, cold/windy.
[Savannah] warm year-round, 2 dry seasons, rainfall rest of year.
20% of land surface. High ground sanctuary for animals
70.8% of Earth (2.5%=freshwater). salt water, fresh water, estuaries.
Temp increased 1F in past century, faster increase in last 2 decades. Avg World Temp=60F. 1998 hottest. Chemical buildup of greenhouse gasses=trap heat.
degradation of tropical rainforests for human resources, causes decrease of ecological resources
when semiarid or arid land loses productive potential by 10%+. Long term drought. Topsoil is renewable but takes 200-1000 years to produce 1 inch.
70.8% water (2.5% fresh), 29.2% land (20% mountain, 2% rainforest, 1.5% urban, 3.2% forest, 4.7% crops, 2.6% pasture, 13.13% arable, .7% desert)
interaction between organisms and their nonliving environment.
[Producers] create their own food from environment's compound
[Consumers] herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, scavengers
[Decomposers] detrivores, recycle/make shit
each individual species in an ecosystem
various species living in same space
community of species interacting in environment.
[Abiotic] nonliving (water, air, etc.)
[Biotic] plants, animals
when neighboring ecosystems join up to form transitional areas
all of the planet's ecosystems in which life occurs
all factors affecting life/reproductions of a species. Generalists survive in varied places (e.g. cockroaches, rats, humans), while Specialists have limited adaptability (e.g. pandas, salamanders)
natural nutrient enrichment of lakes.
[Ogliotrophic] nutrient-poor water
single-cell Prokaryotic (no nucleus)>single-cell Eukaryotic>Bacteria>multicellular organisms
66% of Earth's land disturbed by human activities
[Traditional Subsistence] only enough labor for farmer's family to survive
[Traditional Intensive] more labor to feed family and sell
[Interplanting] several crops on same plot
[Industrialized Plantation] cash crops, large areas of land
30,000 edible plant species; only 3 grain (rice, wheat, corn).
primary producer>primary consumer>secondary consumer>tertiary consumer
overlapping food chains
compressed plant/bacteria. CO2 not released until fuel is mined or burned
First 1950-70. Increase crop yield per area. 2nd 1967-present developed dwarf crops.
sun>shortwave radiation>absorbed by earth>reflected as longwave radiation>trapped by gases.
hold in heat and keep earth warm; increased 25% since industrial resolution
Origins of Greenhouse Gases
[CO2] from solid waste, fossil fuels, photosynthesis
[Methane] production of coal, natural gas, oil. Decomposition of organic waste, livestock.
[Nitrous Oxide] agricultural and industrial activities
[Hydroflourocarbons/HFC] industrial processes, ac, fridges, aerosols
Gross Primary Product (GPP)
rate producers and plants create more biomass via photosynthesis. Reefs are high, deserts and oceans are low.
75% of drinking water; agriculture
HABs (Algae Blooms)
lakes. Deplete oxygen, kill marine species, birds. release toxins, damage fisheries.
[Pleistocene] short w/long arms, used tools, half-sized brain.
[Pleistocene] brain 75% migration, fire, hunter/gatherer, speech.
[Pleistocene] 6ft tall, less sexual dimorphism, weapons.
[Neanderthal] "Neander Valley".
[Paleolith] short/robust, 100% bran, advanced weapons, shelter, bury dead.
[Sapien] "thinking man" competition for resources, herd, language, art.
flood, overhead, center pivot, lateral, drip/trickle, subirrigation
66% disturbed by human activity.
atmosphere (gravity), troposphere (lower, up to 4-12 mi), stratosphere (ozone, up to 31 mi), mesosphere (up to 53), thermosphere (up to 430), exosphere (up to 6200) (hydrosphere/water, lithosphere/rocks, biosphere/life)
crude petroleum takes 3 yrs to recover; refined takes 10
plant and animal products
water, rocks, soil, gases
stratosphere; reaction of emissions with sunlight.
sunlight>sugar>ATP>convert CO2 to O2 and sugar
primary released directly to troposphere, secondary formed when primary react with air and one another
6.47 billion. China & India 38%. US 4.6%
MDC=75, LDC=50, Jap=79, Afr/Asia=47
Crude Birth Rate
live births divided by midyear population. # births per 1000 pop
Crude Death Rate
Deaths divided by midyear population. # deaths per 1000 pop
Fetal Mortality Rate
20+ weeks gestation. Fetal deaths/live births+fetal deaths
Infant Mortality Rate
Infant (<1) deaths/live births
Neonatal Mortality Rate
<28 days. # NnD/1000 live births
Postneonatal Mortality Rate
28-365 days. # / 1000 live births
Birth Cohort Rate
deaths in same year or following year after birth. #/100,000 live births
Maternal Mortality Rate
#/100,000 live births
# live births/100,000 women 15-44 yrs old
Replacement Level Fertility
# of children each couple must produce to replace themselves. MDC=2.1, LDC=2.5
Total Fertility Rate
Average expected births in 1000 women
Annual Rate of Natural Population Change
(%) = (birth rate-death rate)/(1000 persons) x 100
Population Change Rate
[Births + Immigration] - [Deaths + Emigration]
primary (same product), secondary (different product)
anything obtained from environment which meets human needs and desires. Perpetual, renewable, non-renewable.
limit erosion/replenish fertility. Nutrients lost by erosion.
fossil combust. Primary and secondary pollutants mix in sunlight.
Primary=new organism takes over an area. Secondary=old organism leaves area
Inertia: persist, withstand disturbance. Constancy: maintain population. Resilience: regenerate.
4.6 billion years old. 98% of solar system's mass. Surface=photosphere. 91% hydrogen, 9% helium. Core=2.7m*F
temperature, pressure, humidity, sunshine, cloud cover, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation.
Clean Air Act
1963, 70, 77, 90. acceptable levels of air pollution
Endangered Species Act
1973. protects ecosystems, resources, and species from harm
Environmental Protection Agency
1970. Nixon. Earth Day.
1998. 67 countries, created framework for reducing emission of GH Gases into atmosphere.
1987. 46 nations freeze production of CFCs
National Environmental Policy Act
1969. Federal agencies must research effects of proposed activities before implementing.
30,000 worldwide. lobby politicians.
Sffe Drinking Water Act
1974, set EPA standards
1962 book by Rachel Carson.
1980. Comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act. Response to Love Canal.
Toxic Substances Control Act
1976. Compulsory checks on substances before widespread use.
UN conference on human environment 1972.
Rio Earth Summit
UN conference on human environment 1992.