Human Diseases and Conditions - chapter 10 - Circulatory System -Disorders

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coronary artery disease/CAD

condition involving arteries supplying the myocardium

angina pectoris

chest pain after exertion/result of reduced oxygen supply to the myocardium

myocardial infarction

death of myocardial tissue caused by the development of ischemia

cardiac arrest

sudden, unexpected cessation of cardiac activity

hypertensive heart disease

result of chronically elevated pressure throughout the vascular system/most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the U.S.

essential/primary hypertension

condition of abnormally high blood pressure in the arterial system A pressure of 140/90 is indicative. Recent guidelines state systolic pressure of 120-140

malignant hypertension

severe form of hypertension/life-threatening condition; patients at risk for CVA or irreversible renal damage; in severe cases pressure may be greater than 200/12 mm Hg .

congestive heart failure

CHF; acute or chronic inability of the heart to pump enough blood throughout the body to meet the demands of homeostasis; chronic CHF creates vulnerability to major organ impairment and resulting complications

cor pulmonale

results in enlargement of the right ventricle as a sequela to primary lung disease; also known as right-sided heart disease

pulmonary edema

condition of fluid shift into the extravascular spaces of the lungs

cardiomyopathy

noninflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle resulting in enlargement of the myocardium and ventricular dysfunction; divided into 3 groups dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive cardiomyopathy; some conditions are fatal with the only hope of survival being a heart transplant

pericarditis

acute/chronic inflammation of the pericardium (serosa), the sac enclosing and protecting the heart

myocarditis

inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart; generally involves damage to the myocardium by pathogenic invasion or toxic insult

endocarditis

inflammation of the lining and the valves of the heart; usually secondary to infection elsewhere in the body, the result of preexisting heart disease, or the consequence of an abnormal immunologic reaction

rheumatic fever

systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disease involving the joints and cardiac tissue; occurs within 1-5 weeks following streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat)

rheumatic heart disease

cardiac manifestations that follow rheumatic fever

valvular heart disease

acquired/congenitial disorder that can involve any of the four heart valves; can occur in the form of either insufficiency or stenoses; mitral/bicuspid valve most often involved

mitral stenosis

hardening of the cusps of the mitral/bicuspid valve that prevents complete and normal opening for the passage of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle; most common etiology is rheumatic heart disease

mitral insufficiency

mitral/bicuspid valve fails to close completely and allows blood from the left ventricle to flow back into the left atrium; can lead to CHF

mitral valve prolapse

usually a benign condition, occurs when the valve cusps do not close completely

arrhythmias

any deviation from the normal heartbeat or sinus rhythm/irregular heartbeat

shock

collapse of the cardiovascular system, including vasodilation and fluid shift accompanied by inefficient cardiac output

cardiogenic shock

inadequate output of blood by the heart

cardiac tamponade

compression of the heart muscle and restriction of heart movement caused by blood or fluid trapped in the pericardial sac; also called cardiac compression; life threatening

emboli

clots of aggregated material (usually blood) that can lodge in a blood vessel and inhibit blood flow

aneurysm

weakening and resulting local dilation of the wall of an artery; most common form/abdominal aortic aneurysm

phlebitis

inflammation of a vein, most often occurring in the lower legs, but any vein, including cranial veins, may be affected

thrombophlebitis

result of inflammation of a vein with the formation of a thrombus on the vessel wall

varicose veins

swollen, tortuous, and knotted veins usually occurring in the lower legs; advanced vericosities cause the skin around the area to take on a brown discoloration

Buerger's disease / thromboangiitis obliterans

inflammation of the peripheral arteries and veins of the extremities with clot formation

Raynaud's disease

vasospastic condition of the fingers, hands, or feet, causing pain, numbness, and sometimes discoloration in these areas; generally presents bilaterally; called Raynaud's disease when it's primary, when it's presents secondary to another disease it's called Raynaud's phenomenon

agranulocytosis / neutropenia

blood dyscrasia in which leukocyte levels become extremely low; usually caused by drug toxicity or hypersensitivity, often accompanies aplastic or metaloblastic anemia, tuberculosis, uremia, or malaria; can be fatal within 1 week if left untreated

polycythemia / polycythemia vera

abnormal increase in the amount of hemoglobin, the RBC count, or the hematocrit, causing an absolute increase in RBC mass

acute lymphocytic leukemia / ALL

characterized by an overproduction of immature lymphoid cells (lymphoblasts) in the bone marrow and lymph nodes; tends to affect children and those older than 65, the most common childhood leukemia

chronic lymphocytic leukemia / CLL

neoplasm that involves the lymphocytes/slowly progressive disease that results in accumulation of mature-appearing, but hypofunctional lymphocytes

acute myelogenous leukemia / AML

rapidly progressive neoplasm of cells committed to the myeloid line of development. Leukemic cells accumulate in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and other tissues; also known as acute myeloid, myelocytic, or granulocytic leukemia; most common adult leukemia

chronic myelogenous leukemia / CML

slowly progressing neoplasm that arises in a hematopoietic stem cell or early progenitor cell, resulting in an excess of mature-appearing, but hypofunctional neutrophils; bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the only chance for a complete cure; also known as chronic myeloid or myelocytic leukemia

lymphedema

abnormal collection of lymph, usually in the extremities

lymphangitis

inflammation of the lymph vessels, frequently caused by a bacterial invasion into the lymph vessels at the site of local trauma or ulceration

lymphoma

malignant neoplasms that arise from uncontrolled proliferation of the cellular components of the lymph system; the dysfunctional cells may be B cells, T cells, or rarely, both; divided into 2 main categories Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's disease / Hodgkin's lymphoma

cancer of the body's lymphatic system, in which the involved cells proliferate and interfere with normal functioning by collecting in masses in various parts of the body. Tumor arise in the tissue of the lymph nodes and spread to other lymph nodes, the spleen, the liver, and the bone marrow; differentiated from other lymphomas by the presence in the lymphatic tissue of a Reed-Sternberg cell; one of the most treatable forms of cancer; two peaks of incidence one in patients in their 20s, one in patients over the age of 50

non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/NHL

a number of heterogeneous neoplasms of the lymphoid cells that exhibit a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms, ranging from slow, indolent growth to rapidly fatal progression, some can be cured with appropriate treatment, but for others, treatment does not prolong survival

transfusion incompatability reaction

results when the blood or blood products transfused has antibodies to the recipient's RBC's or the recipient has antibodies to the donor's RBC's; the most frequent transfusion reaction is associated with WBCs or WBC remnants in donor blood, it is febrile and short lived, ceasing when the transfusion is halted, and there is no hemolysis or allergic response

classic hemophilia

x-linked hereditary bleeding disorder in males resulting from deficiency of clotting factors; cannot be cured, treatment prevents crippling deformities

disseminated intravascular coagulation

a life threatening and often fatal condition of simultaneous hemorrhage and thrombosis; a syndrome that occurs secondary to other diseases, follows major events such as obstetric complications, septicemia, trauma, burns, hypothermia, and extensive tissur destruction

thrombocytopenia

idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura is considered an autoimmune response, this dyscrasia involves reduced clotting capabilities of the blood

leukemias

malignant neoplasms of the blood-forming organs (bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes) that produce an abnormal, uncontrolled, clonal proliferation of one specific type of blood cell in the lymphoid or myeloid cell lines

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