Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 5

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axial skeleton

the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body

appendicular skeleton

bones of the liimbs and girldels

skeletal system

includes bones, joints, cartilages and ligaments

functions of the bone

support- forms an internal framework; protection- protect the soft organs; movement- attached to bones and tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts; storage- sores fats and other minerals and nutrients; blood cell formation- hematopiesis occurs within the marrow cavities

compact bone

dense and looks smooth and homogeneous

spongey bone

composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open space

long bones

long and wide, have shaft with heads at both ends, mostly compact bone; limbs, wrist, ankle

short bones

cube-shaped bones, mostly spongey bone; sesamoid bones (form within tendons), patella

flat bones

thin, flattened, curved, compact bone with spongey bone in the middle; skull, ribs, sternum

irregular bones

vertebrae, hips

diaphysis

shaft, makes up most the bones length and composed of compact bone

periosteum

fibrous connective tissue membrane

perforating/ Sharpey's fibers

secure the periosteum to the underlying bone, hundreds of connective tissue fibers

epiphyese

the ends of the long bone- then layer of compact bone enclosing spongy bone

articular cartilage

covers external surfaces, glassy hyaline cartilage, provides smooth surfaces that decrease friction at joint surfaces

epiphyseal plate

hyaline cartlage seen in growing bone, cause the lengthwise growth of long bone, when bone is fully grown the plate is replaced by bone

yellow marrow/ medullary cavity

the cavity of a shaft that is a storage area for adipose tissue

red marrow

the cavity of an infant shaft that forms blood cells; adults is confined to cavities of spongy

osteocytes

mature bone cells, found within the matrix in tiny cavities

tuberosity

large rounded projections; may be roughened

crest

narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent

trochanter

very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process

line

narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest

tubercle

small, rounded projection or process

epicondyle

raised area on or above on condyle

spine

sharp, slender, often pointed porjection

process

any bony prominence

head

bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

facet

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

ramus

armlike bar of bone

condyle

rounded articular projection

metus

canal like passage way

sinus

cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane

fossa

shallow basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface

groove

furrow

fissure

narrow, slitlike opening

foramen

round or oval opening through a bone

ossification

process of bone formation- 1.hyaline cartilage is covered with bone matrix by bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) 2. hyaline cartilage is digested away

appositional growth

bone increasing in diameter

osteclasts

bone-destroying cells, releases calcium

hypercalcemia

blood calcium levels are too high

comminuted fracture

bone breaks into many pieces

compression fracture

bone is crushed

depressed fracture

broke bone portion is pressed inward

impacted fracture

broke bone ends are forced into each other

spiral

ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone

greenstick fracture

bone breaks incompletely, much in way a green twig breaks

skull

facial bones and cranium

cranium

frontal bone, parietal bone (2), occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone

frontal bone

forms the for head

parietal bones

superior and lateral walls of the cranium

sagittal suture

connects the parietal bones, the midline of the skull

coronal suture

connects the parietal bones to the frontal bones

temporal bones

lie inferior to the to the parietal bones

squamous suture

join temporal bone and parietal bones horizontally

external acoustic meatus

canal that leads to the ear drum, where sound enters

styloid process

sharp projection inferior to the external auditory meatus

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