# Apologia General Science (Sonlight) Module 4

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Vocabulary from the Sonlight Instructors Guide

### Applied science

The motivation behind it is aimed at trying to find something useful

### Technology

Is a new process or machine that makes life better or makes a job easier

### Simple Machine

A device that either multiplies or redirects a force

### Force

A push or pull exerted on an object to change that object's velocity

A fixed point

### Lever

Simple machine that magnifies either force or motion

### Effort

The force being applied to the lever

### Resistance

The weight the machine is manipulating

The amount by which force or motion is magnified in a simple machine

### Mechanical advantage for the lever

Distance from the fulcrum to effort divided by the distance from fulcrum to resistance

### First class lever

The fulcrum is positioned between the effort and resistance

### Second class lever

The fulcrum is positioned at one end of the bar and the resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort

### Third class lever

The fulcrum is at one end of the bar and the effort is between the fulcrum and the resistance

### Diameter

The length of a straight line that travels from one side of a circle to another and passes through the center of a circle

### Mechanical advantage for the wheel and axle

Diameter of the wheel divided by the diameter of the axle

### Pulley

A grooved wheel that rotates freely on a frame

### Block and tackle

Multiple pulley system. Mechanical advantage for pulleys in a block and tackle = numbers of pulleys used

### Inclined Plane

Allows you to slide the load up rather than lifting it straight.

### Mechanical advantage of the inclined plane

Length of the slope divided by height

### Wedge

Generally used to separate things

### Mechanical advantage for the wedge

Length of the slope divided by height

### Pitch

The vertical distance between the threads of the screw

### Mechanical advantage of the screw

circumfrence divided by pitch

### Circumference

The distance around a circle, equal to 3.1416 times the circle's diameter

Example: