Biology Terms Test #2

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The Important Terms for Test #2 for Biology

Anchoring Junction

a junction which holds cells strongly together in tissue meant to stretch.

Cell Wall

the rigid extracellular structure that protects the cell and also provides skeletal support; only in plant cells.

Chloroplast

the photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes

Chromatin

a complex of proteins and DNA which makes up the eukaryotic chromosomes.

Cilia

short, numerous appendages that propel protists (we have these in our windpipe)

Cistern

the flattened sacs of the Golgi body

Compound Light Microscope

works by passing visible light through a specimen; glass lenses in the microscope bend the light to magnify the image of the specimen and project the image into the viewer's eye (1,000 x mag.)

Cristae

the folds of the inner membrane of the Mitochondria.

Cytoplasm

the entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane.

Cytosol

the liquid component of the cytoplasm

Cytoskeleton

a network of protein fibers that extend through the cytoplasm of a cell, which provide not only structure for the cell, but also cell mobility.

Endosymbiosis Theory

Eukaryotes evolved as a larger prokaryotic cell engulfed a smaller prokaryotic cell which took on specific functions over time; this is involved with mitochondria and chloroplasts

Endoplasmic Reticulum

An interconnected system of tubes and flattened sacs that is involved in the transport, modification and addressing of substances. There are two types of these: smooth and rough.

Eukaryotic

compose all forms of life except for bacteria and archaea; have a nucleus

Flagellum

longer versions of cilia, which are a lot less numerous in the cell.

Gap Junction

a junction which provides direct connection between cytoplasm

Granum

the chloroplast's site where the green chlorophyll molecules trap energy.

Golgi body

a system of flattened sacs on top of each other; packages, further modifies and addresses the substances.

Intermediate Filament

the part of the cytoskeleton that is rigid for support and shape; Keratin is an example.

Lysosome

a vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion; it breaks down food particles in the cell.

Matrix

(of a mitochondria); contains the mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes that catalyze some of the reactions of cellular respiration.

Microfilament

the part of the cytoskeleton that helps with muscle contractions, helps with cell shape and support, and helps with cell division (cytokinesis).

Microtubule

the part of the cytoskeleton that is the track for motor proteins (dynein and kinesin) it also makes up the Spindle Fibers that move chromosomes during mitosis/meiosis

Mitochondria

organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells; they synthesize ATP

Nuclear Envelope

encloses the nucleus. It is a double membrane perforated with nuclear pores.

Nucleoid region

the dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell

Nucleolus

a prominent structure in the nucleus, where rRNA is synthesized according to instructions in the DNA

Nucleoplasm

similar to the cytosol of the cytoplasm, the nucleus contains this sappy liquid

Nucleus

contains most of the cell's DNA and controls the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis

Peroxisome

contains the enzyme catalase for breaking down and detoxifying certain chemicals

Plasmodesmata

gap junctions in the cell wall of plants so that the cells can communicate with each other

Plasma Membrane

the membrane that bounds all cells.

Prokaryotic

compose bacteria and archaea; have no nucleus

Ribosome

the site of protein synthesis; they are small and numerous in the cells. They can be suspended in the fluid of the cytoplasm (free ribosomes) or bound to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum (bound ribosomes).

SEM (scanning electron microscope)

A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a cell or group of cells that has been coated with metal; it emits electrons and the electrons are detected and projected onto a computer screen.

Stroma

the thick fluid composed of chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as enzymes. It is in the compartment within the inner membrane of a chloroplast.

Thylakoid

the interconnected sacs inside of the chloroplasts; many grana make this up

Transmitting Electron Microscope (TEM)

a microscope that works by transmitting an electron beam through a very small section of a specimen; the image is created by the pattern of transmitted electrons.

Tight Junction

a junction that prevents substances from passing in between cells

Vacuole

membranous sacs that have a variety of functions; essential for storage in the cell.

Vesicle

a membrane bound sphere that carries a specific substance throughout the cell.

Vesicle Transport

the process by which a substance is moved through the endomembrane system by a vesicle.

9 + 2 Microtubule

both flagella and cilia are composed of microtubules wrapped in an extension of the plasma membrane. A ring of nine microtubule doublets surrounds a central pair of microtubules. This arrangement is found in nearly all eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

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