the rigid extracellular structure that protects the cell and also provides skeletal support; only in plant cells.
Compound Light Microscope
works by passing visible light through a specimen; glass lenses in the microscope bend the light to magnify the image of the specimen and project the image into the viewer's eye (1,000 x mag.)
a network of protein fibers that extend through the cytoplasm of a cell, which provide not only structure for the cell, but also cell mobility.
Eukaryotes evolved as a larger prokaryotic cell engulfed a smaller prokaryotic cell which took on specific functions over time; this is involved with mitochondria and chloroplasts
An interconnected system of tubes and flattened sacs that is involved in the transport, modification and addressing of substances. There are two types of these: smooth and rough.
a system of flattened sacs on top of each other; packages, further modifies and addresses the substances.
the part of the cytoskeleton that is rigid for support and shape; Keratin is an example.
a vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion; it breaks down food particles in the cell.
(of a mitochondria); contains the mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes that catalyze some of the reactions of cellular respiration.
the part of the cytoskeleton that helps with muscle contractions, helps with cell shape and support, and helps with cell division (cytokinesis).
the part of the cytoskeleton that is the track for motor proteins (dynein and kinesin) it also makes up the Spindle Fibers that move chromosomes during mitosis/meiosis
organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells; they synthesize ATP
a prominent structure in the nucleus, where rRNA is synthesized according to instructions in the DNA
contains most of the cell's DNA and controls the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis
gap junctions in the cell wall of plants so that the cells can communicate with each other
the site of protein synthesis; they are small and numerous in the cells. They can be suspended in the fluid of the cytoplasm (free ribosomes) or bound to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum (bound ribosomes).
SEM (scanning electron microscope)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a cell or group of cells that has been coated with metal; it emits electrons and the electrons are detected and projected onto a computer screen.
the thick fluid composed of chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as enzymes. It is in the compartment within the inner membrane of a chloroplast.
Transmitting Electron Microscope (TEM)
a microscope that works by transmitting an electron beam through a very small section of a specimen; the image is created by the pattern of transmitted electrons.
the process by which a substance is moved through the endomembrane system by a vesicle.