The applied science of healing or treatment of diseases to enhance an individual's health and well-being.
Studies conducted during the 1920s and 1930s that discovered the existence of the informal organization.
A high-performance system to execute business strategy that is customer driven, emphasizes quantitative decision making, and places a priority on saving money.
The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another.
The psychological approach that says in order to understand human behavior, we must know something about the person and the situation.
A relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior.
The personality theory that states that in order to understand individuals, we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits.
The broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual's psychological processes.
Locus of Control
An individual's generalized belief about internal control (self-control) versus external control (control by the situation or by others).
An individual's general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variety of situations.
The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations.
An individual's tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.
An individual's tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.
A situation that overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior.
Personality assessments that involves an individual's responses to a series of questions.
A preference indicating that an individual is energized by interaction with other people.
Gathering information through "sixth sense" and focusing on what could be rather than what actually exists.
The assumption that an individual's behavior is accounted for by the situation.
The process of selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints while discounting information that threatens our viewpoints.
The tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions.
The situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are confirmed.
The process by which individuals try to control the impressions others have of them.
A theory that explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior and that of others.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else's behavior.
The tendency to attribute one's own successes to internal causes and one's failures to external causes.
A psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.
The process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture.
A state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior.
A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences.
Workplace Deviance Behavior
Any voluntary counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes some degree of harm to organizational functioning.
A type of organizational commitment based on an individual's desire to remain in an organization.
A type of organizational commitment based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave.
A type of organizational commitment based on an individual's perceived obligation to remain with an organization.
Mental states that typically include feelings, physiological changes, and the inclination to act.
A dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another either consciously or unconsciously through nonverbal channels.
Acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society.
Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.
Values that represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state.
A personality characteristic indicating one's willingness to do whatever it takes to get one's own way.
Cognitive Moral Development
The process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions.
Sigmund Freud's method for delving into the unconscious mind to better understand a person's motives and needs.
The theory that behavior is determined by a progression of physical, social, and psychological needs, including lower-order needs and higher-order needs.
Need for Achievement
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals' issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties.
Need for Power
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual's need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life.
Need for Affiliation
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual's need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people.
The situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving.
An individual who prefers an equity ratio equal to that of his or comparison other.
An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of his or her comparison other.
An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of his or her comparison other.
Modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits and unconditioned response.
Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors.
The attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences.
The attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences.
An individual's beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers.
A process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance.
A process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers.
An informational cue indicating the extent to which peers in the same situation behave in similar fashion.
An informational cue indicating the degree to which an individual behaves the same way in other situations.
A work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle.
The unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand.
The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequence that may arise as a result of stressful events.
An imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction.
A cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover.
A cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair.
Type A Behavior Pattern
A complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements.
A personality resistant to distress and characterized by commitment, control, and challenge.
A way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events.
A health, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others.
An unhealthy, insecure patter of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people.
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships.
Preventive Stress Management
An organizational philosophy that holds that people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain.
The stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress.
The stage in preventive stress management designed to alter or modify the individual's or the organization's response to a demand or stressor.
The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain.
A timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it.
A logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences.
A theory that suggest there are limits to how ratnal a decision maker can actually be.
To select the first alternative is "good enough," because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize.
Garbage Can Model
A theory that contends that decisions in organizations are random and unsystematic.
An individual's preference for gathering information and evaluating alternatives.
A fast, positive force in decision making that is utilized at a level below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information.
A process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both.
Participative Decision Making
Decision making in which individuals who are affected by decisions influence the making of those decisions.
A positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group.
A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from pressures within the group.
The tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members.
A technique for generating as many ideas as possible on a given subject, while suspending evaluation until all the ideas have been suggested.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
A structured approach to group decision making that focuses on generating alternatives and choosing one.
A technique for preventing groupthink in which a group or individual is given the role of critic during decision making.