what is the most common route of transmission?
fecal oral (teach important of hand hygiene to parents/child care workers)
2 types of immunity?
innate (genetic factors) & acquired
2 types of acquired immunirt?
active (own antibodies) & passive (ready made antibodies)
active can be __ or ___?
natural (exposure to infectious agents) or artificial (immunization)
passive can be ___ or ____ ?
natural (maternal antibodies) or artificial (antibodies from other sources)
natural passive immunity example?
Antibodies (proteins capable of responding to specific infectious agents) are acquired via breast milk or placenta
artificial passive immunity example?
A method of passive immunity from a human or animal host (Used by immunosuppressed pts to decrease the severity of the diseases that they may not have immunity to )
artificial active immunity is obtained by?
immunizations do what?
introduce an antigen so that antibodies are developed
killed virus vaccine IMMUNIZATION
dead but capable of inducing production of antibodies (IPV)
toxin treated by heat or chemical to weaken toxic effects (tetanus toxoid)
live virus vaccine IMMUNIZATION
live by attenuated (weakened) (measles & varicella vaccines)
recombinant forms IMMUNIZATION
genetically altered organism (HepB & acellular pertussis[uses pertussis proteins])
conjugated forms IMMUNIZATION
organism combined with a substance to increase immunity (haemophilis influenzae tpye B HIB)
how to protect vaccine potency?
documentation of vaccines?
date, vaccine, manufacturer, lot #, expiration date, site, and route
longer needles for administration of vaccines do what?
decrease risk of local reaction
how to reduce pain/anxiety
bottle/pacifier, distraction, 2 providers/2 injections, allow older child to pick site, allow parent to comfort
how to prep for emergencies?
epi and emergency equipment available & notify vaccine compensation injury program
any communicable disease caused by microorganisms that are commonly transmitted from one person to another or from an animal to a person
an infection often caused by direct transmission (acquired from a person or animal through contact with body fluids such as kissing sneezing, or coughing)
is acquired through contact with contaminated objects or by vectors(ticks, mosquitoes, other insects)
time interval between exposure and development of symptoms
phase of early manifestations until development of the overt syndrome
what is the most common manifestation?
whos at high risk for communicable disease?
children with a toxic appearance, newborns <28 d with T > 100.4, children <4 with T >105.8, & children with CHD, VP shunt, asplenia, sickle cell disease
Intestinal Parasitic Disorders occur where?
tropical regions where water is not properly treated
Intestinal Parasitic Disorders: pets & wildlife?
pets need to be checked regularly for parasites & dewormed regularly
children in daycare are at highest risk for?
outbreaks of diseases caused by worms
pediculosis capitis AKA ___ & most common when?
head lice; 4-11 years
incubation time to hatch for lice?
clinical manifestations of head lice?
intense pruritus & "dandruff" that sticks to hair
how to treat head lice?
pediculicide shampoo such as "Nix"