immunizations & communicable diseases

33 terms by egarcon

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peds

what is the most common route of transmission?

fecal oral (teach important of hand hygiene to parents/child care workers)

2 types of immunity?

innate (genetic factors) & acquired

2 types of acquired immunirt?

active (own antibodies) & passive (ready made antibodies)

active can be __ or ___?

natural (exposure to infectious agents) or artificial (immunization)

passive can be ___ or ____ ?

natural (maternal antibodies) or artificial (antibodies from other sources)

natural passive immunity example?

Antibodies (proteins capable of responding to specific infectious agents) are acquired via breast milk or placenta

artificial passive immunity example?

A method of passive immunity from a human or animal host (Used by immunosuppressed pts to decrease the severity of the diseases that they may not have immunity to )

artificial active immunity is obtained by?

immunizations

immunizations do what?

introduce an antigen so that antibodies are developed

killed virus vaccine IMMUNIZATION

dead but capable of inducing production of antibodies (IPV)

toxoid IMMUNIZATION

toxin treated by heat or chemical to weaken toxic effects (tetanus toxoid)

live virus vaccine IMMUNIZATION

live by attenuated (weakened) (measles & varicella vaccines)

recombinant forms IMMUNIZATION

genetically altered organism (HepB & acellular pertussis[uses pertussis proteins])

conjugated forms IMMUNIZATION

organism combined with a substance to increase immunity (haemophilis influenzae tpye B HIB)

how to protect vaccine potency?

temp logs

documentation of vaccines?

date, vaccine, manufacturer, lot #, expiration date, site, and route

longer needles for administration of vaccines do what?

decrease risk of local reaction

how to reduce pain/anxiety

bottle/pacifier, distraction, 2 providers/2 injections, allow older child to pick site, allow parent to comfort

how to prep for emergencies?

epi and emergency equipment available & notify vaccine compensation injury program

Infectious disease

any communicable disease caused by microorganisms that are commonly transmitted from one person to another or from an animal to a person

Communicable disease

an infection often caused by direct transmission (acquired from a person or animal through contact with body fluids such as kissing sneezing, or coughing)

Indirect transmission

is acquired through contact with contaminated objects or by vectors(ticks, mosquitoes, other insects)

Incubation Period

time interval between exposure and development of symptoms

Podrome

phase of early manifestations until development of the overt syndrome

what is the most common manifestation?

fever

whos at high risk for communicable disease?

children with a toxic appearance, newborns <28 d with T > 100.4, children <4 with T >105.8, & children with CHD, VP shunt, asplenia, sickle cell disease

Intestinal Parasitic Disorders occur where?

tropical regions where water is not properly treated

Intestinal Parasitic Disorders: pets & wildlife?

pets need to be checked regularly for parasites & dewormed regularly

children in daycare are at highest risk for?

outbreaks of diseases caused by worms

pediculosis capitis AKA ___ & most common when?

head lice; 4-11 years

incubation time to hatch for lice?

8-10 days

clinical manifestations of head lice?

intense pruritus & "dandruff" that sticks to hair

how to treat head lice?

pediculicide shampoo such as "Nix"

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