the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
short - term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten.
long - term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
a view of short - term memory that stresses conscious, active processing of information, whether newly encoded or retrieved from long - term memory.
unconscious encoding of everyday information, such as space, time, frequency, and well - learned word meanings.
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long - term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
retaining learned skills or conditioning, often without conscious awareness of this learning.
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with encoding meaning.
long - term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
memory demonstrated by retrieving information learned earlier, as on a fill - in - the - blank test.
memory demonstrated by identifying items previously learned, as on a multiple -choice test.
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
mood - congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with your current good or bad mood.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety.
In Sperling's memory experiment, research participants were shown three rows of three letters, followed immediately by a low-, medium-, or high tone. The participants were able to report
any one of the three rows of letters.
Psychologists found that memory was better in research participants who were
asleep during the retention period, presumably because interference was reduced.
According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those
in the middle of the list.
If experimenters gave people a list of words to be recalled, the participants, who were tested after a delay, would recall best those words
at the beginning of the list.
Long-term potentiation refers to
the increased efficiency of synapse's firing potential following learning.
Memory researchers are suspicious of long-repressed memories of traumatic events that are "recovered" with the aid of drugs or hypnosis because:
A) such experiences usually are vividly remembered.
B) such memories are unreliable and easily influenced by misinformation.
C) memories of events happening before about age 3 are especially unreliable.
D) of all of these reasons.
D) of all of these reasons.