Cell Transport (Biology 521A)

12 terms by mlister 

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passive transport

movement of materials without the use of the cell's energy

active transport

the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration, requiring energy

diffusion

The movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

Cell Membrane

Separates cell from its environment. Controls movement of substances into / out of the cell

Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

Isotonic

Water concentration inside the cell is equal to the water concentration outside the cell

Pinocytosis

Involves the intake of a small droplet of extracellular fluid

Phagocytosis

Involves the intake of a large droplet of extracellular fluid which has large particles in it (i.e. bits of organic matter or bacteria)

Receptor assisted endocytosis

Involves the intake of specific molecules(ex. Cholesterol) through the aid of special membrane proteins

Exocytosis

The reverse of endocytosis. Involves the movement of a vesicle from inside the cell to the cell surface in which its contents are excreted into the surrounding environment (ex. Insulin secreted by pancreatic cells)

Hypertonic

contain a high concentration of solute relative to another solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in this solution, the water diffuses out of the cell, causing the cell to shrivel.

Hypotonic

contain a low concentration of solute relative to another solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in this solution, the water diffuses into the cell, causing the cell to swell and possibly explode.

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