Biology 521 - Chapter 02 - Macromolecules

33 terms by mlister 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Biology

Carbohydrates?

They give us short term energy!!

What are carbohydrates made of?

 Long chains of monosaccharides.
 Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Monosaccharides?

A monosaccharide is a single unit of a carbohydrate, (3-7 carbons) usually in a ring formation

Monosaccharides examples

glucose, fructose, and galactose
All 3 have the same formula C6H12O6 ... but, they have different shapes and properties

Disaccharides?

A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharide units that have been joined together.

Disaccharide examples

maltose, lactose and sucrose

Polysaccharides?

A polysaccharide consists of long chains of monosaccharides that have been joined together by dehydration synthesis.

Examples of polysaccharides are:

 Starch - plant based
 Cellulose - forms plant cell walls
 We cannot digest cellulose, but it is high in fiber which is good for the colon.
 Glycogen - 'animal starch'
 It acts as a storage molecule for excess glucose. Glycogen is stored in the liver.

Monomers

A single unit of anything

The two main classes of lipids are?

fats & oils

What elements make up lipids?

C H O

2 structure of fats? form what?

glycerol & 3 fatty acids.
triglyceride

fatty acids?

all Fats are a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at 1 end

saturated fat?

there are only single bonds between each carbon, and hydrogen atom. These are solid at room temperature (ex: butter).

unsaturated fat?

there are double or even triple bonds between some of the carbon atoms. These are liquid at room temperature (ex: oils).

functions of proteins?

1. Enzymes regulate chemical reactions
2. Transport - to cross the cell membrane and carry other substances throughout the body, such as hemoglobin
3. Hormones - are chemical messengers
4. Body structure - muscles, hair, gums, skin, and parts of bone

What elements are in proteins?

S, P, O, N, C, H

formation & breakage of proteins?

 Dehydration synthesis is responsible for joining two amino acids together.
 Hydrolysis is chemical reaction that splits apart two joined amino acids.

SPECIAL STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS

Proteins contain about 50 to over 100,000 amino acids
To form a protein, the amino acids arranged in a specific order, and will also take on a unique shape. The amino acids form cross links between them.

How to break cross links?

These cross links may be broken by heat, radiation, electricity or chemical reaction. When this happens, the protein will no longer function correctly, and is said to be denatured.

function of nucleic acids?

Nucleic Acids direct the growth and development of all organisms through a chemical code.

2 types of nucleic acids?

 DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
 RNA - Ribonucleic acid

elements of nucleic acids?

P, O, N, C, H

nucleic acids composed of?

composed on long chains of nucleotides
-nitrogenous base
-ribose sugar
-phosphate

sugar used for dna?

deoxyribose; one less oxygen on DNA

Ribose

The sugar used in RNA molecules

dna bases?

 Cytosine
 Guanine
 Adenine
 Thymine

rna bases?

 Cytosine
 Guanine
 Adenine
 Uracil

DNA

Forms a double polymer called the double helix

Adenine

bonds with thymine

RNA

Forms only a single polymer. It copies one side of the DNA double helix and takes the 'code' out of the nucleus. It provides the 'recipe' to the ribosomes to make proteins.

Guanine

bonds with Cytosine

Polymer

Any large molecule composed of repeating monomers.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set