The Cell membrane and Cellular Transport

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What do all cells have

Cell Membrane(plasma membrane)

Cell membranes control what _____________ the cell to maintain an internal balance called ________

enters and exits
homostasis

What do cell membranes provide?

protection and support

What is structure of the cell membrane

Lipid bilayer

What are lipid bilayer made from

2 layer of phospholipids

Phosphate head is ______

polar

what does hydrophilic

water loving

Fatty Acid tails are ______

nonpolar

what does hydrophobic

water fearing

What are embedded in the membrane

Proteins

Phospholipids are the modified so that a _______(PO4-) replaces one of the three fatty acids normally found on a lipid. The addition of this group makes a _________________

Phosphate group,
polar head and 2 non polar tails

Fluid mosiac of the cell membrane

Molecules move freely in the membrane(fluid)

What do cell membranes have ____in them

pores(holes)

Selectively permeable

allows some molecules in and keep others out

What helps it be selective?

the structure

What are two types of cellular transport?

Passive and Active

Passive Transport

diffusion

In passive transport, do cells use energy or not

Cells do not use energy

In passive transport, molecules move _____

randomly

In passive transport, molecules spread out from an area of ____ concentration to an area of ____ concentration

high; low

high to low, fluids will ____

flow

What are four types of passive transport

simple diffusion
facilitated diffusion
osmosis
ion channels

diffusion

random movement of particles from an area of high con. to low con.

diffusion continues until what happens

equilibrium is reached

Facililated Diffusion

diffusion of specific particles through carrier proteins

what are carrier proteins

they select only certain molecules to cross the membrane

What do carrier proteins transport?

large or changed molecules

Osmosis(simple diffusion)

diffusion of water through a a selectively permeable

Hypotoncic

the solution has a lower concentration of solute and a higher concentration of water than inside of the cell

Whats the result of hypotoncic

water moves from the solution to inside the cell. cell swells and bursts open(cytolysis)

Hypertonic

the solution has a higher and lowerr concentration of h20 than inside of the cell

Whats the result of the hypertonic cell

water moves from inside the cell into the solution. the cell shrinks. c plasmolysis

Isotonic

the concentration of solutes in the solution is equal to the concentration of solutes inside of the cell

Whats the result of being isotonic

water moves equally in both directions and the cell remains the same size(dynamic equilibrium)

How do bacteria and plants cells deal with osmosis pressure

they have cell walls that prevent them from over-expanding. In Plants the pressure exerted on the cell wall is called turgour pressure

How do protist like paracieum deal with osmosis pressure

has contractile vacules that collect water flowing in and pump it out

Ion channels

membrane proteins similar to carrier proteins transport ions from high to low concentration

How do the ions get through

because they cant pass through the nonpolar part of the lipid bilayer so they are shielded by protein channel

What type of energy does active transport use

ATP

does active tranport require energy

yes

Active transport

movement from a low area of concentration to an area of high concentration

what are 3 types of active transport

Protein pumps
Endocytosis
Exocytosis

Protein pumps

transport proteins that require energy to do work

endocytosis

taking bulky material into a cell
-cell membrane in-folds around particle
-forms vesicle/vacuole around particles

what are two types of endocytosis

phagocytosis
pinocytosis

phagocytosis

cell eating

pinocytosis

cell drinking

Exocytosis

forces materials out of cell in bulk
-membrane surrounding the material fuses with cell membrane
-cell changes shape

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