dairy cows produce
above 80% of the world milk supply
the 9 mill cows in the US have a avg yrly prod of more than
18,200 Lbs per cow or 211 gallons (10.3 gallons per day)
milk is a...
colloidal suspension of solids in liquids
fluid whole milk is 80%....
water, 8.6% SNF and 3-4% milk fat
SNF (solids not fat) is the total...
solids minus the milk fat and contains protein, lactose & minerals
first milk a female produces after the young is born
colostrum is higher
in protein, minerals and milk fat, but contains less lactose. it also contains immunoglobulin antibodies
milk produced after colostrum and not legally salable until after the 11th milking
refers to the concentration of major nutrients in relation to the caloric value of the food
milk fat is a mix
of lipids existing as microscopic globules suspended in the milk
milk fat contains up to....
48% of the total calories
fat soluable vitamins in milk are,.
A, D, E, and K
what gives milk it's flavor
lactose is synthesized in
the manmary gland
what % of milk is lactose
carbohydrates account for what % of the SNF content
carbohydrates contrubute what % of the total calories in the milk
milk is the only natural source of...
milk contains what % of protein
proteins account for what % of total SNF
proteins make up what % of calories
proteins in milk contain varying amounts of...
amino acids required by humans (high in lysine)
only found in milk is approx. 82% of milk protein...
what type of proteins constitute the remaining 18%
whey proteins, primarily lactalbumin and lactoglubulin
milk is fortified w/ vit D during...
processing w/ lighting procedures (carotene is a precursor of vit A)
vit B and vit C are...
fat soluable vitamins found in the milk fat and water soluable found in nonfat portion
milk is a good source of what minerals
calcium, phosphorus and zinc
calcium and vit D....
are needed in combination to contribute to bone growth in young humans and to prevent osteoporosis in adults, especially women
92% of the 156 bill Lbs of milk produced is
whole milk is.....
not less than 3.25% milk fat and 8.25% milk SNF
low-fat milk, milk fat removed where you have..
either .5%, 1%, 1.5% or 2% w/ not less that 8.25% SNF
prevents milk fat from separated from the liquid portion and rising to the top by emulsifying or breaking up the fat droplets
destroys the action of the lipolytic enzymes which prolong rancidity of milk, done prior of and after homogenization (heat milk to 161*F for 15 sec to destroy pathogenic micro-organizisms)
evaporated milk is produced by....
preheating milk to stable proteins and removing about 60% of the water, sealed in containers, then heat treated to sterilized contents
milk fat must be...
@ least 7.5% and SNF must be at least 25%
skim milk must have....
at least 20% SNF and not more than .5% milk fat
concentrated or condensed milk....
also has water removed but isn't subject to further heat treatment to prevent spoilage, milk fat 7.5% and 25.5% SNF
dry milk is prepared by....
removing water from whole, low-fat or skim milk
dry milk cannot contain...
more than 5% moisture by weight
buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream and other cultured milk produce
are produced under rigidly continuous conditions of sanitation, innoculation, acidification and or temp
cultured indicates the addition of...
appropriate bacteria cultures to the liquid to subsequent fermentation (converts lactose to lactic acids, producing a tart flavor)
that the food was produced by souring milk or cream w/ or w/out the add of microbial organisms
a liquid product that is high in fat that has been seperated from milk
federal standards require that a cream....
content is not less than 18% milk fat
half and half is
not less that 10.5% and not more than 18% milk fat
lite cream is.....
not less than 18% and not more than 30% milk fat
lite whipping cream or whip cream is....
not less than 30% and not more than 36% milk fat
heavy cream or heavy whip cream is....
more than 36% milk fat
dry cream is produced by....
removing water and/or cream, not less than 40% and not more than 75% milk fat and not moisture
butter is made from....
milk or cream (or both) and contains not less than 80% by weight of milk fat
making operations can produce 1800-11,000 Lbs of butter an hour
butter grades are based on.....
flavor, color and salt characteristics
there are how many types of cheese
more than 400 different types of cheese w/ over 2000 names
how are cheese types classified
based on moisture content
4 types of cheese types
soft, semisoft, hard, very hard
cheese making involves....
a biochemical process called coagulation or curdling
process or making cheese
milk is heated, liquid starter culture is added, bacteria from the culture forms acid and sour the milk, rennet is added to thicken the milk, it's stirred and liquid whey is removed
how much cheese is produced from 100 Lbs of milk
8-16 Lbs of cheese
ice cream is...
frozen dairy product highest in milk fat and milk solids
if egg yolk exceed 1.4% by weight the product is called
contains less milk fat, protein and total solids than ice cream
has less milk fat and higher acidity than ice cream
contains milk product, egg yolk, egg white and a nutritive carb sweetner
eggnog must contain..
>6% milk fat and >8.25% SNF
imitation dairy products...
are products that look like, taste like and are intended to replace the traditional counterpart, but is nutrionally inferior to it, meets FDA's def of nutritional equivalency
a "REAL" seal is used....
in the dairy industry to ID real dairy foods that meet fed and or state standards
nutritive value of milk
large % or calcium, phosphorus, protein and vit B
human milk is regarded as.....
the best source of nourishment for infants, even though cow's milk can be modified by adding sugar to meet nutrient and physical requirements of infants
milk is low in.....
iron, therefore young animals consuming nothing but milk may develop anemia
milk sold through commercial outlets....
is certified to be from herds that are tested and found to be free from brudellosis and tuberculosis
milk is one of the best......
controlled, inspected and monitored of all food commodities
milk is taken from the cow (about 100) by mach, transfered through sanitized pipes into a holding tank and rapidly cooled to 45F or less to maintain high quality, taken to production plant by truck, once passes inspection it's pumped to another holding tank to await production, pasteurization, homogenized, then cooled rapidly below 45*F and packaged into presterilized containers
lactose intolerance is.....
a result from low levels of the enzyme lactase in the digestive tract
lactose intolerance symptoms...
include bloating, abdominal cramps, nausea and diarrhea
human disease risk conclude
some research concludes that dairy have lower cholesterol
noticable consumer preference toward low fat products
small % of the world's milk produce enters world trade
most production goes to plants and dealers for processing, more than 50% is sold in supermarkets in plastic jugs
co-op marketing association give producers more bargaining power as they contain appox. 90% of the milk production
higher milk production has resulted in a surplus of milk and milk products, this excess production and government storage are the major problem facing the dairy industry