Chapter 18: The Endocrine System

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What is Endocrine System composed of?

Composed of glands that secrete hormones; chemicals secreted into the bloodstream.

Name of glands that secrete substances into ducts and out of the body?

Exocrine Glands

Exocrine Glands

Send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) via ducts to the outside of the body.

Endocrine Glands

No matter which homrmones they produce, secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream.

Thyroid Gland

Is composed of a right and left lobes on either side of the trachea.

What is the function of the thyroid gland?

Maintains metabolism

What are the 3 hormones that the thyroid produces?

T3-triiodothyronine, T4- thyroxine, Calcitonin.

Parathyroid Glands

Are four small, oval bodies located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland or beside.

Where are the parathyroid glands located?

Located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland or beside.

What is the function of the parathyroid gland?

Secrete PTH= parathyroid hormone, AKA=parathormone

What moves calcium from bones into blood?

Parathyroid hormone AKA=parathormone

Adrenal Glands

Are two small glands, one on top of each kidney, (suprarenal glands 2).

What are the two parts of the Adrenal Glands?

An outer portion, the adrenal cortex, inner portion, the adrenal medulla.

What is the structure of the adrenal gland?

Adrenal cortex= outer portion; steroid/corticosteroid secretion(complex chemicals derived from cholesterol).
Adrenal medulla= Inner portion; catecholamine secretion(chemicals derived from amino acids).

The adrenal cortex secretes three types of corticosteroids

1.Glucocorticoids 2. Mineralocorticoids 3. Sex hormones

Glucocorticoids

Cortisol and cortisone- metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins; inflammatory responses; includding blood sugar.

Mineralocorticoids

Aldosterone-electrolyte regulation;Na+ and H2O reabsorption & K+ excretion.

Sex hormones

Androgen and estrogen

What are the 3 S's hormones from the adrenal cortex influence?

Sugar(cortisol), salt(aldosterone), and sex(androgens and estrogens).

What is the function of the pancreas?

Exocrine and endocrine.

What does the pancreas controls?

Blood glucose levels.

What does the pancreas secrete?

Digestive enzymes into GI tract.

What 2 chemicals from the Islets of Langerhans releases?

Insulin= glucose to glycogen for storage; lowers BS,, glucose into cells and out of blood.
Glucagon=breakdown of glycogen to glucose; glucose into blood; raises BS

Gonads

sex organs

Female

Two ovaries

Estrogen

Female sexual characteristics, egg dev; ovum-->ova

progesterone

prepares for and maintains pregnancy (uterine lining)

Male

Two testes

-Testosterone-

male sexual characteristics- sperm dev; spermatogenisis

pineal gland

central portion of brain
releases melatonin

thymus gland

located behind the sternum

thymosin

are small polypeptides present in animal tissues.

immune response

any of the body's immunologic reactions to an antigen

T-cell

lymphocytes that develope in the thymus and are responsible for cell meiated immunity

lymphatic tissue

A type of loose connective tissue called reticular connective tissue; dominates all lymphoid organs except thymus

pituitary gland

It's also called the hypophysis or the master gland. It is a small pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain in a small pocket-like depression of the skull called the sella turcia.

anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)

composed of glandular epithelial tissue.

posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)

composed of nervous tissue.

hypothalamus

It is a region of the brain under the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. Signals transmitted from the hypothalamus control secretions by the pituitary gland. Special secretory neurons in the hypothalamus send releasing and hormones via capillaries to the anterior pituitary gland.

anterior pituitary gland

Major hormones are the growth hormone (GH), or somatotropin (STH) promotes protein synthesis that results in the growth of bones,muscles and other tissues.

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Also known as thyrotropin. It stimulates the growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroxine (T4) and triiodithyronine (T3).

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Also known as thyrotropin. It stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones (primarily cortisol).

gonadotropic hormones

Several gonadotropic hormones influence the growth and hormone secretion of the ovaries in females and the testes in males.

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone ( LH)

In females both hormones stimulate the growth of eggs in the ovaries, the production of hormones, and ovulation. In the male , FSH influences the production of sperm, and LH (as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone) stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.

prolactin (PRL)

Stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth.

posterior pituitary gland

Stores and releases two important hormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus.

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Also known as the vasopressin. It stimulates the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules, In addition, ADH also increases blood pressure by constriction arterioles.

Oxytocin (OT)

Stimulates the uterus to contract during childbirth and maintains labor during childbirth.

melanocyte

stimulates the skin pigmentation.

Acromegaly

Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities.

gigantism

Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.

dwarfism

Congential hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism.

panhypopituitarism

deficiency of all pituitary hormones.

antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)

excessive secretion of antidiuertic hormone.

diabetes insipidus (DI)

insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin).

hyperthyroidism

overactivity of the thyroid gland.

thyrotoxicosis

The most common form of this condition is Graves disease ( resulting from autoimmune processes).

exophthalmos

(protrusion of the eyeballs, or proptosis) occurs as a result of swelling of tissue behind the eyeball, pushing it forward.

hypothyroidism

underactivity of the thyroid gland.

myxedema

Advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood. Atrophy of the thyroid gland occurs, and practically no hormone is produced. The skin becomes dry and puffy because of the collection of mucus-like material under the skin.

Cretinism

Extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leads to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.

Cushing's syndrome

Group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex.

Addison's disease

Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex.

diabetes mellitus (DM)

Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.

Type 1 diabetes

Is an autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies against normal pancreatic islet cells are present. Onset is usually in early childhood.

Type 2 diabetes

Is a separate disease from type 1 and has a different inheritance pattern. Patients usually are older, and obesity is very common.

Fasting Blood Sugar or Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS, FBG)

circulating glucose after 8 hours.

Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)

measures ability to respond to a glucose load; a test for diabetes.

Thyroid Function Test (TFT)

measures thyroid hormones in the blood.

Potassium (K+)

an important electrolyte

Sodium (Na+)

an important electrolyte

HbA1c or HBA1C

test for the presence of glucose attached to hemoglobin (glycosylated hemoglobin test); a high level indicates poor glucose control in diabetic patients.

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