Graph that shows which wavelengths are most strongly absorbed by a pigment
Shows which wavelengths are most effective at powering a photochemical process
REQUIRES ENERGY. chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to build more complex molecules.
Referring to any process or reaction that does not produce oxygen. Photosynthesis in purple sulfur and purple nonsulfur bacteria, does not involve photosystem II
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP.
chlorophyll used by photosynthetic purple and green bacteria in anoxygenic phototrophs
Stroma or Dark Reaction, conversion of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates with the use of energy from the light reactions, NADPH & ATP
a mechanism for absorbing CO2 and transporting it, concentrating it in the leaves. Found in plants with Kranz anatomy: chlorophyllous mesophyll surrounding the vascular bundle.
protons move down their gradient through ATP synthase channels back into the matrix, and ADP is phosphorylated to ATP
A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
Crassulacean acid metabolism
An adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. In this process, a plant takes up CO2 and incorporates it into a variety of organic acids at night; during the day, CO2 is released from organic acids for use in the Calvin cycle.
cyclic electron transport
The flow of electrons from P700 back to plastoquinone in photosynthesis, such that there is proton pumping but no synthesis of NADPH.
Small electron carriers that contain iron.
Metabolism in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones
electron transport chain
A series of electron carriers that transfer electrons from a donor, which becomes oxidized, to a receptor, which becomes reduced.
A measure of disorder in a system
excited state electron
An electron that has absorbed a quantum and moved to a higher orbital; it has more energy than when it is in its ground state
An iron-containing proteinaceous electron carrier in photosynthesis
The spontaneous emission of a quantum by an excited electron, which allows the electron to return to its ground state
A set of thylakoid membranes that connect grana in chloroplasts.
Formation of glucose from 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde.
The rise in Earth's atmospheric temperature due to heat trapped by increasing levels of carbon dioxide.
ground state electron
An electron in its most stable orbital, when it contains the least amount of energy
An organism that obtains its carbon from organic molecules, not from carbon dioxide.
light compensation point
The level of illumination at which photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide just matches respiratory loss.
In photosynthesis, the set of reactions directly driven by light
noncyclic electron transport
The flow of electrons from water to NADPH during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
A measure of the number of electrons added to or removed from a molecule during an oxidation-reduction reaction
The formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate, powered by energy released through respiration.
To raise the oxidation state of a molecule by removing an electron from it.
An electron carrier that is not carrying electrons.
The form of oxygen that absorbs ultraviolet light in the upper atmosphere.
The reaction center of photosystem II.
The reaction center of photosystem I.
An organism that obtains its energy through photosynthesis and its carbon from dioxide.
The formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of light energy; a part of photosynthesis.
The oxidation of phosphoglycolate produced when RuBP carboxylase adds oxygen, not carbon dioxide, to RuBP.
A cluster of photosynthetic pigments and electron carriers embedded in the chloroplast membrane.
The pigments and electron carriers that transfer electrons from water to P700 in photosystem I.
The pigments and electron carriers that transfer electrons from P700 to NADPH.
Any material that absorbs certain wavelengths specifically and therefore has a distinctive color
A copper-containing electron carrier.
A class of lipid-soluble electron carriers.
quality of light
The term referring the colors or wavelengths of light.
quantum (pl.: quanta)
A particle of electromagnetic energy.
A special chlorophyll a molecule actually involved in the transfer of electrons in photosynthesis
The tendency of a molecule to accept or donate electrons during a chemical reaction.
To lower the oxidation state of a molecule by adding an electron to it
A electron carrier that is carrying electrons.
The ability of an electron carrier to force electrons onto another compound.
Synonym for RuBP carboxylase, Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
In plant photosynthesis, the set of reactions that occur in the stroma and are not directly powered by light.
substrate level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP from ADP by having a phosphate group transferred to it from a substrate molecule
The term referring to a diagram of the P680 and P700 photosytems working together.