Across-fiber pattern principle
notion that each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of every stimulus in its system
chemical that causes neurons containing substance P to release it suddenly and also directly stimulates pain receptors sensitive to moderate heat
Conductive deafness (middle-ear deafness)
hearing loss that occurs if the bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
concept that pitch perception depends on differences in frequency of action potentials by auditory neurons
assumption that stimulation of certain nonpain axons in the skin or in the brain can inhibit transmission of pain messages in the spinal cord
concept that each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and has a direct line to the brain
Nerve deafness (inner-ear deafness)
hearing loss that results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve
Nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS)
area in the medulla that receives input from taste receptors
neurons responsible for the sense of smell, located on the olfactory epithelium in the rear of the nasal air passages
receptor that responds to a sudden displacement of the skin or highfrequency vibration on the skin
chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of other members of the same species
concept that pitch perception depends on which part of the inner ear has cells with the greatest activity leve
Primary auditory cortex (area A1)
area in the temporal lobes in which cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency
canal lined with hair cells and oriented in three planes, sensitive to the direction of tilt of the head
tenet that a sound wave of a moderately high pitch may produce a volley of impulses by various fi bers even if no individual fiber can produce impulses in synchrony with the sound waves
The malleus, incus, and stapes are small bones:
which transmit information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
The fact that the various parts of the basilar membrane are tightly bound together is problematic for which of the following?
the place theory
People with massive damage to the primary auditory cortex:
cannot recognize combinations or sequences of sounds.
Damage to the part of the cochlea that sends information about high frequency sounds to the primary auditory cortex could result in:
A sound shadow refers to
how much louder a high-frequency sound is for the ear closest to the sound.
In the otolith organs, the otoliths are calcium carbonate particles that:
push against hair cells when moved.
The sensory aspect of pain activates the ________ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the ________ cortex.
What process is predicted by the gate theory of pain?
Non-pain information can inhibit pain information.
Antihistamine drugs tend to ________ itching, and opiates tend to ________ itching.
Which of the following is TRUE about taste receptors?
Are located mainly along the outside edge of the tongue.