← Ch 7 stuff Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Across-fiber pattern principle notion that each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of every stimulus in its system Adaptation decreased response to a stimulus as a result of recent exposure to it Amplitude intensity of a sound or other stimulus Capsaicin chemical that causes neurons containing substance P to release it suddenly and also directly stimulates pain receptors sensitive to moderate heat Cochlea structure in the inner ear containing auditory receptors Conductive deafness (middle-ear deafness) hearing loss that occurs if the bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea Cross-adaptation reduced response to one stimulus because of recent exposure to some other stimulus Dermatome area of skin connected to a particular spinal nerve Endorphins category of chemicals the body produces that stimulate the same receptors as do opiates Frequency number of sound waves per second Frequency theory concept that pitch perception depends on differences in frequency of action potentials by auditory neurons Gate theory assumption that stimulation of certain nonpain axons in the skin or in the brain can inhibit transmission of pain messages in the spinal cord Hair cell type of sensory receptor shaped like a hair; auditory receptors are hair cells Labeled-line principle concept that each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and has a direct line to the brain Loudness perception of the intensity of a sound Nerve deafness (inner-ear deafness) hearing loss that results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve Nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) area in the medulla that receives input from taste receptors Olfaction sense of smell Olfactory cells neurons responsible for the sense of smell, located on the olfactory epithelium in the rear of the nasal air passages Opioid mechanisms systems responsive to opiate drugs and similar chemicals Oval window membrane of the inner ear, adjacent to the stirrup Pacinian corpuscle receptor that responds to a sudden displacement of the skin or highfrequency vibration on the skin Papilla (pl.: papillae) structure on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds Periaqueductal gray area area of the brainstem that is rich in enkephalin synapses Pheromone chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of other members of the same species Pinna outer-ear structure of flesh and cartilage that sticks out from each side of the head Pitch experience that corresponds to the frequency of a sound Place theory concept that pitch perception depends on which part of the inner ear has cells with the greatest activity leve Placebo drug or other procedure with no pharmacological effects Primary auditory cortex (area A1) area in the temporal lobes in which cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency Semicircular canal canal lined with hair cells and oriented in three planes, sensitive to the direction of tilt of the head Somatosensory system sensory network that monitors the surface of the body and its movements Substance P neurotransmitter released by nerves that are sensitive to pain Supertasters people with heightened sensitivity to taste Synesthesia experience of one sense in response to stimulation of another sense Taste buds structures on the tongue that contain taste receptors Tinnitus frequent or constant ringing in the ears Tympanic membrane eardrum Volley principle tenet that a sound wave of a moderately high pitch may produce a volley of impulses by various fi bers even if no individual fiber can produce impulses in synchrony with the sound waves Vomeronasal organ (VNO) set of receptors located near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors Across species, it appears that the sense organs are most attuned to biologically useful stimuli. What is the intensity of a sound wave called? amplitude Loudness is to ________ as pitch is to ________. amplitude; frequency What is another name for the tympanic membrane? eardrum The malleus, incus, and stapes are small bones: which transmit information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window. The fact that the various parts of the basilar membrane are tightly bound together is problematic for which of the following? the place theory People with massive damage to the primary auditory cortex: cannot recognize combinations or sequences of sounds. Conductive deafness is also known as: middle ear deafness Damage to the part of the cochlea that sends information about high frequency sounds to the primary auditory cortex could result in: tinnitus A sound shadow refers to how much louder a high-frequency sound is for the ear closest to the sound. In the otolith organs, the otoliths are calcium carbonate particles that: push against hair cells when moved. The function of the semicircular canals is to: detect movement of the head. What neurotransmitter is released by axons that carry pain information to the brain? substance P The sensory aspect of pain activates the ________ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the ________ cortex. somatosensory; cingulate Enkephalins can interact with the same receptors as morphine. What process is predicted by the gate theory of pain? Non-pain information can inhibit pain information. Antihistamine drugs tend to ________ itching, and opiates tend to ________ itching. reduce; increase Which of the following is TRUE about taste receptors? Are located mainly along the outside edge of the tongue. One major difference between olfaction and VNO receptors is that: VNO receptors do not adapt. One hypothesis of synesthesia is: that some of the axons from one cortical area have branches into another cortical area.