Chapter 9: The Blood and Lymphatic System

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Comprehensive Medical Terminology 4th edition by Betty Davis Jones

Acquired immunity

immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent, as a result of having had the disease or from having received an immunization against a disease

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Clinical conditions that destroy the body's immune system in the last or final phase of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which primarily damages helper T cell lymphocytes with CD4 receptors

Adenoids

masses of lymphatic tissue located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx, also called the pharyngeal tonsils

Agglutination

clumping of cells as a result of interaction w/specific antibodies called agglutins. Agglutinins are used in blood typing and in identifying or estimating the strength of immunoglobulin's or immune serums

Albumin

plasma protein, helps maintain blood volume and pressure

Allergen

substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body

Allergy

hypersensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental

Anaphylaxis

exaggerated, life threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen

Anemia

describes a condition in which there is decrease in hemoglobin in the blood to levels below the normal range, resulting in deficiency of oxygen being delivered to cells

Anisocytosis

abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size

Antibodies

substances produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances, each class of antibody named for its action

Antigens

substance, usually protein that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically w/that antibody

Aplastic anemia

condition in which the bone marrow does not make enough new blood cells

Ascites

abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes

Basophil

granulocytic white blood cell characterized by cytoplasmic granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye, represent 1% or less of the total white blood cell count

Bilirubin

orange yellow pigment of bile formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after termination of their normal life span

Blastocyte

An undifferentiated blastomere of the morula or the blastula stage of an embryo.

Chromophilic

denoting a cell, tissue, or microorganism that is easily stained, particularly certain leukocytes

Coagulation

process of transforming a liquid into a solid

Corpuscle

any cell of the body, a red or white blood cell

Cytogenesis

The formation, development, and variation of cells

Cytomegalovirus

large species specific herpes type virus with a variety of disease effects, causes serious illness in persons with AIDS, newborns, and in individuals who are being treated with immunosuppressive drugs

Differentiation

process in development in which unspecialized cells or tissues are systemically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical forms, physiologic functions and chemical properties

Direct antiglobulin test

used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh-negative woman

Dyscrasia

abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia or prenatal Rh incompatibility

Edema

abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissue; accumulation of fluid w/in the tissue spaces

Electrophoresis

movement of charged suspended particles through a liquid medium in response to changes in an electric field

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.

Eosinophil

granulocytic, bilobed leukocyte somewhat larger than a neutrophil characterized by large numbers of coarse, refractile, cytoplasmic granules that stain with the acid dye eosin

Eosinophilia

An increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood

Erythremia

abnormal increase in the number of the red blood cells

Erythroblast

immature red blood cell

Erythrocytes

red blood cells

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

a measure of the settling of red blood cells in a tube of blood during one hour. The rate is an indication of inflammation and increases in many diseases.

Erythrocytopenia

a condition characterized by a deficiency or decrease in number of erythrocytes

Erythrocytosis

An abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells

Erythropoiesis

process of red blood cell production

Erythropoietin

hormone synthesized mainly in the kidneys and released into the bloodstream in response to anoxia, the hormone acts to stimulate and regulate the production of erythrocytes and is thus able to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

Fibrin

stringy, insoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot

Fibrinogen

plasma protein converted into fibrin by thrombin in the presence of calcium ions

Globin

group of four globulin protein molecules that become bound by the iron in heme molecules to form hemoglobin

Globulin

plasma protein made in the liver, helps in the synthesis of antibodies

Granulocyte

type of leukocyte characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic granules

Granulocytosis

abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection

Hematocrit

assessment of RBC percentage in the total blood volume

Hematologist

A person who specializes in the study of blood

Hematology

study of blood

Heme

pigmented iron containing non protein portion of the hemoglobin molecule, binds w/and carries oxygen in the red blood cells, releasing it to tissues that give off excess amounts of carbon dioxide

Hemochromatosis

rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias

Hemoglobin

complex protein iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs

Hemogram

A record of the findings from an examination of the blood, especially with reference to the numbers, proportions, and morphological features of the formed elements.

Hemolysis

the breaking open of red blood cells

Hemolytic

Destructive to red blood cells; hematolytic.

Hemophilia

involves different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times

Hemorrhage

a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time

Hemostasis

termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body, consisting of vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and thrombin and fibrin synthesis

Heparin

naturally occurring anticlotting factor present in the body

Hyperalbuminemia

increased level of albumin in the blood

Hyperlipemia

excessive level of blood fats, usually caused by a lipoprotein lipase deficiency or a defect in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins to high density lipoproteins

Hyperlipidemia

aka hyperlipemia

Hypersensitivity

abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimuli

Hypersensitivity

tissue damage resulting from exaggerated immune response

Hypersplenism

syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen

Immune reaction

defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies

Immunity

state of being resistant to or protected from a disease

Immunization

the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune.

Immunodeficiency

a group of disorders in which part of the immune system is missing or defective.

Immunology

The branch of biomedicine that is concerned with the structure and function of the immune system, innate and acquired immunity, and laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with antibodies.

Immunologist

A person who specializes in the study of immunology

Immunotherapy

special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity

Isotonic

denoting or relating to a solution having the same osmotic pressure as some other solution, esp. one in a cell or a body fluid.

Kaposi's sarcoma

locally destructive malignant neoplasm of the blood vessels associated with AIDS, typically forming lesions on the skin, visceral organs or mucous membranes. These lesions appear initially as tiny red to purple macules and evolve into sizable nodules or plaques

Karyocyte

a normoblast, or developing red blood cell, with a nucleus condensed into a homogenous staining body. It is normally found in the red bone marrow.

Leukemia

excessive uncontrolled increases of immature WBC in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia and thrombocytopenia

Leukocyte

white blood cell, one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system

Leukocytopenia

abnormal decrease in the number of white blood cells to fewer than 5000 cell per cubic millimeter

Lipid profile

measures lipids in the blood

Lymph

interstitial fluid picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and eventually returned to the blood, once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic vessels, it is known as lymph

Lymphadenitis

infection of the lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy

any disorder of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels, characterized by enlargement

Lymphangiogram

a radiographic visualization of a part of the lymphatic system.

Lymphocyte

small, a granulocytic leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and developing in the bone marrow

Lymphoma

lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant, beginning w/a painless enlarged lymph node and progressing to anemia, weakness, and fever and weight loss

Macrophage

any phagocytic cell involved in the defense against infection and in the disposal of the products of the breakdown of cells

Megakaryocyte

extremely large bone marrow cell

Monocyte

large mononuclear leukocyte

Monocytopenia

An abnormally low number of monocytes in the blood

Mononucleosis

usually caused by the Epstein Barr virus, typically is benign, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes

Morphology

The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without consideration of function.

Multiple myeloma

malignant plasma cell neoplasm, causes an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure

Myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites

Myeloblast

An immature cell of the bone marrow that is the precursor of a myelocyte.

Myeloid

of or pertaining to the bone marrow or spinal cord

Natural immunity

immunity with which we are born

Neutrophil

polymorph nuclear granular leukocyte that stains easily with neutral dyes

Nucleus

the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.

Pancytopenia

marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

Pathogens

disease producing microorganism

Pernicious anemia

a disease in which the red blood cells are abnormally formed, due to an inability to absorb vitamin B12

Phagocyte

any cell that ingests microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles, such as a microphage, macrophage, or monocyte

Phagocytosis

process of a cell engulfing and destroying bacteria

Plasma

watery, straw colored fluid portion of the lymph and the blood in which the leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets are suspended

Platelet

clotting cell, a thrombocyte

Pneumocystis carinil pneumonia

caused by a common worldwide parasite

Poikilocytosis

presence in the blood of erythrocytes showing abnormal variation in shape

Polycythemia

too many RBC's

Polycythemia Vera

abnormal increase in the number of RBC, granulocytes, and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and thickness

Prothrombin

plasma protein precursor of thrombin, synthesized in the liver if adequate vitamin K is present

Prothrombin time

blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation

Purpura

collection of blood underneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red purple skin discoloration

Red blood cell morphology

examination of RBC on a stained blood smear that enables the examiner to identify the form and shape of the RBC's

Reticulocyte

immature erythrocyte characterized by a mesh like pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus

Reticulocyte count

measurement of the number of circulating reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes in a blood specimen

Rouleaux

aggregation of RBC's viewed through the microscope that may be an artifact or may occur with persons with multiple myeloma as a result of abnormal proteins

Sarcoidosis

systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, rounded lesions in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, liver and other organs

Septicemia

systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body

Seroconversion

change in serologic tests from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection or vaccine

Serology

branch of lab medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reaction

Serum

clear, thin, sticky fluid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation, contains no blood cells, platelets or fibrinogen

Sickle cell anemia

sickle hemoglobin

Sideroblast

a nucleated erythrocyte containing iron granules in its cytoplasm

Spheroid

Having a generally spherical shape

Spherocytosis

the presence of spherocytes in the blood

Splenomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the spleen

Stem cell

formative cell, whose daughter cells may give rise to other cell types

Susceptible

state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents

T cells

cells important to the immune response

Thalassemia

hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBC

Thrombin

enzyme formed from prothrombin, calcium, thromboplastin in plasma during the clotting process, causes fibrinogen to change to fibrin, which is essential to formation of clot

Thrombocyte

clotting cell, a platelet

Thrombocytopenia

abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced

Thromboplastin

complex substance that initiates the clotting process by converting prothrombin and thrombin in the presence of calcium ion

Thrombosis

the formation or presence of a clot

Thrombus

a clot

Tonsils

masses of lymphatic tissue located in a protective ring, just under the mucous membrane, surrounding the mouth and the back of the throat

Western Blot

an adaptation of the Southern blot procedure, used to identify specific amino-acid sequences in proteins.

White blood cell differential

measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBC present in 1mm3 of peripheral blood drawn for the WBC count

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