an organism that harnesses light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide.
algae that shares the following four distinctive traits with land plants; rosette-shaped cellulose-synthesizing complexes, peroxisome enzymes, flagellated sperm structure, and the formation of the phragmoplant which suggest a close relation.
in charophytes, a thick layer of a durable polymer that protects exposed zygotes from drying out in the sun.
alternation of generations
a life cycle which is characteristic of plants and some algae in which there is both a multicellular diploid sporophyte form, and a multicellular haploid gametophyte form.
in organisms that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis.
in organisms that have alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that produces haploid spores by meiosis.
a multicellular organ in plants and fungi in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop.
a diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores.
embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and the buds of shoots that allows the plant to grow in length.
a waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terestrial plants.
plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
vascular tissue system
a transport system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant. the xylem transports water and minerals while the phloem transports sugars and the products of photosynthesis.
includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts all of which lack seeds.
group of seedless plants that includes ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns.
seedless vascular plants
the informal name for a plant that has vascular tissue but lacks seeds, including the phyla Lycophyta (club mosses and their relatives) and Pteridophyta (ferns and their relatives).
a group of organisms that share the same level of organizational complexity or share a key adaptation.
a vascular plant that bears seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers.
a flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
a mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
the mature gamete-producing stucture of a moss gametophyte.
a long, tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground.
a microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells of the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the enviornment and the interior of the plant.
vascular plant tissue consisting of mainly tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plant.
a long, tapered water-conducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants.
a hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that provides structural support in terrestrial plants.
vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
an organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil.
an informal name for a moss, liverwort, or hornwart; a nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.