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The pressure difference between two points in a tube or vessel is called the

Driving Pressure

The barometric pressure difference between the mouth pressure and the alveolar pressure is called the

Transairway Pressure

When the pressure is greater within the airway, the pressure is called

Positive transmural pressure

When the pressure is greater outside the airway, the pressure is called

Negative transmural pressure

The difference between the alveolar pressure and the pleural pressure is called the

Transpulmonary pressure (Ptp)

If the gas pressure at the beginning of a vessel is 12 mm Hg and the pressure at the other end of the same vessel is 7 mm Hg, What is the driving pressure?

5 mm Hg

The difference between the alveolar pressure and the body surface pressure is called the

Thransthoracic Pressure (Ptt)

If the Palv is 751 mm Hg and the Pm is 758 Hg, what is the Pta?

7 mm Hg

If the Ppl is 752 mm Hg and the Palv is 748 mm Hg, what is the Ptp?

4 mm Hg

If the Palv is 751 mm Hg and the Pbs is 757 mm Hg, what is the Ptt?

6 mm Hg

During inspiration, the thoracic volume increases and the intrapleural and intra-alveolar pressures ______.

decreases

During expiration, the intra-alveolar pressure is ______ than the barometric pressure

greater

During a normal expiration, the intrapleural pressure is always ______the barometric pressure

below

The normal intrapleural pressure change is about ___ to ___ cm H2O pressure, or ___ to ___ mm Hg.

3,6 and 2,4

Lung compliance is defined as the change in lung _______ per change in _______.

volume and pressure

If an individual generates an intrapleural pressure of -7 cm H2O during inspiration, and the lungs accept a new volume of 385 ml of air; what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.055 L/cm H2O or (55ml cm H2O)

If the same patient, four hours later, generates an intrapleural pressure of -5 cm H2O during inspiration, and the lungs accept a new volume of 350 ml of air, what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.07 L/cm H2O or (70 ml cm H2O)

If a mechanical ventilator generates a +9 cm H2O pressure during inspiration and the lungs accept a new volume of 450 ml of gas, what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.050 L / cm H2O or (50ml/cm H2O)

If, on the same patient six hours later, the mechanical ventilator generates a + 15 cm H2O pressure and the lungs accept a new volume of 675 ml of gas, what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.045 L/cm H2O or (45ml/cm H2O)

Under normal resting conditions, the average lung compliance during each breath is approximately...

0.1 L/cm H2O

According to the volume-pressure curve, if an individual has a resting lung volume of 1500 ml, and generates a negative 25 cm H2O pressure (in addition to the negative pressure required to maintain the resting lung volume), how many ml of gas will the lungs accommodate (in addition to the resting lung volume)?

2000 ml (2L)

When the lung compliance decreases, the volume-pressure curve moves to the_____

right

When the volume-pressure curve moves to the left, lung compliance is

Increased

As the alveoli approach their total filling capacity, lung compliance______

decreases

Elastance is defined as

The natural ability of matter to respond directly to force and to return to its original resting position or shape after the external force no longer exists.

In pulmonary physiology, elastance is defined as ____________and is expressed as_________:

The change in pressure per change in volume, and ΔP / ΔV

Lungs with high compliance have ______ elastance, and lungs with low compliance have _____ elastance.

low, high

Hooke's law states that

When a truly elastic body, like a spring, is acted on by 1 unit of force, the elastic body will stretch 1 unit of length, and when acted on by 2 units of force it will stretch 2 units of length, and so forth.

When Hooke's law is applied to the elastic properties of teh lungs, _______ is substituted for length and _______ is substituted for force.

volume, pressure

The molecular, cohesive force at the liquid-gas interface is called

surface tension

The liquid film that lines the interior surface of the alveoli has the potential to exert a force of ________

70 dynes/cm

When Laplace's law is applied to a sphere with one liquid-gas interface, the equation is written as follows:

P= 2ST / r

The mathmatical arrangement of Laplace's law shows that the distending pressure of a liquid bubble is

a. directly proportional to the surface tension of the liquid
b. inversely proportional to the radius of the sphere

According to Laplace's law, as the surface tension of a liquid bubble increases, the distending pressure required to hold the bubble open ______; and as the radius of the bubble increases, the destending pressure ________.

increases, decreases

When two different-sized bubbles with the same surface tension are in direct communication what happens

The smaller bubble will empty into the larger bubble

During the formation of a new bubble, the principles of Laplace's law do not come into effect until the distending pressure of the liquid sphere goes beyond the what?

Critical opening prssure

As a liquid bubble increases in size, the surface tension does what?

remains the same

Pulmonary surfactant is produced by what

alveolar type II cells

The surfactant molecule has both a hydrophobic end, which means it ____________, and a hydrophilic end, which means it is ________________.

water insoluble (hating), and water soluble (loving)

In the healthy lung, when the alveolus decreases in size, the amount of surfactant to alveolar surface area ________. This action causes the alveolar surface tension to ___________.

increase, decrease

It is estimated that the surface tension of the average alveolus varies from ___________ in the small alveolus to about _____________ in the fully distended alveolus.

5-15 dynes, and 50 dynes

List some general causes of surfactant deficiency

a. acidosis
b. hypoxia
c. hyperoxia
d. atalectasis
e. pulmonary vascular congestion

In the healthy lung, both the elastic force and the surface tension force are _____ in the small alveolus

low

The term dynamic is defined as the

study of forces in action

In the lungs, dynamic refers to

the movement in action of gas in and out of the lungs and the pressure changes required to move the gas

When Poiseuille's law is arranged for flow V, it is written as follows:

V = Δ Pr₄ π / 81 ŋ

According to Poiseuille's law, and assuming all other variables remain the same what all will happen to flow?

a. as the pressure increases, flow increases
b. as the length of a tube decreases, flow increases
c. as the radius of a tube increases, flow increases
d. as the viscosity decreases, flow increases

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has gas flowing through it at 32 liters per minute (L/min) is reduced by 50 % of its original size, what will be the new gas flow through the tube?

2 L/min

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has gas flowing through it at 28 L/min is reduced by 16%, what will be the new gas flow through the tube?

14 L/min

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has a driving pressure of 16 cm H2O is reduced by 50% of its original size, waht will be the new driving pressure required to maintain the same gas flow through the tube?

256 cm H2O

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has a driving pressure of 10 cm H2O is reduced by 16% of its original size, what will be the new driving pressure required to maintain the same gas flow through the tube?

20 cm H2O

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has gas flowing through it is at 160 L/min is decreased by 50% of its original size, what will be the new gas flow through the tube?

10 L/min

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has gas flowing through it at 100 L/min is decreased by 16% of its original size, what will be the new gas flow through the tube?

50 L/min

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has a driving pressure of 10 cm H2O is decreased by 50% of its original size, what will be the new driving pressure required to maintain the same gas flow through the tube?

160 cm H2O

Using Poiseuille's law equations and assuming all other variables remain the same:
If the radius of a tube that has a driving pressure of 5 cm H2O is decreased by 16% of its original size, what will be the new driving pressure required to maintain the same gas flow through the tube?

10 cm H2O

Write the simple proportionalities of Poisuille's law for flow (V) and pressure (P):

V = Pr₄
P = V / r₄

Airway resistance (Raw) is defined as the

pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli divided by flow rate

Write the equation for airway resistance (Raw) and include the units of measurement:

Raw = ΔP (cm H2O) / V (L/sec)

If a patient produces a flow rate of 10 liters per second (L/sec) during inspiration by generating a transairway pressure (Pta) of 30 cm H2O, what is the patient's Raw?

3cm H2O/L/sec

The normal Raw in the tracheobroncial tree is about ___ to ___ cm H2O/L/sec

0.5, 1.5

Laminar gas flow refers to

a gas flow that is steamlined

Turbulent gas flow refers to

molecules that move through a tube in a random flow

Time constant is defined as the

time (in seconds) necessary to inflate a particular lung region to about 60 % of its potential filling capacity

Lung regions that have an increased airway resistance require

more time to inflate

Lung regions that have an increased compliance require

more time to inflate

Which of the following causes lung regions to have a long time constant

a. increased lung compliance
b. increased airway resistance

Lung regions that have a decreased airway resistance require

less time to inflate

Lung regions that have a decreased compliance require

less time to inflate

Which of the following causes lung regions to have a short time constant?

a. decreased lung compliance
b. decreased airway resistance

Dynamic compliance is defined as the

change in the volume of the lungs divided by the change in the transpulmonary pressure during the time required for one breath.

In the normal lung, the dynamic compliance is ______ lung compliance at all breathing frequencies

equal to

In the partially obstructed airways, the ratio of dynamic compliance to lung compliance ___________ as the breathing frequency increases

remains the same

Frequency dependent refers to

alveoli distal to an obstruction that do not have enough time to fill their potential filling capacity as the breathing frequency increases.

The ventilatory pattern consists of the following three components

a. tidal volume
b. ventilatory rate
c. time relationship between inhalation and exhalation

Normal tidal volume is about ___ to ____ mL/kg; or ___ to ___ mL/lb.

7,9 and 3, 4

normal adult ventilatory rate is about ____ breaths per minute

15

the normal I:E is about

1:2

The gas that reaches the alveoli during inspiration is referred to as

Alveolar ventilation

The gas that does not reach the alveoli during inspiration is referred to as

dead space ventilation

Anatomic dead space is defined as

the volume of gas in the conducting airways:
nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and lower airways down to, but not including the respiratory bronchioles

If a patient weighs 130 pounds, about how many milliliters (mL) of inspired gas during each breath would be an anatomic dead space gas?

130 mL

Alveolar ventilation is equal to the _________ minus the ________________ multiplied by the ______________

tidal volume, dead space ventilation, breaths per minute

An individual presents with this data:
*Vt = 575 mL
*Vd = 185 mL
*Breaths/minute = 16
What is the alveolar ventilation?

6240 mL

Alveolar dead space is defined as

an alveolus that is ventilated but not perfused with pulmonary blood

Physiologic dead space is defined as

the sum of the anatomic dead space and the alveolar dead space

In the upright position, the negative intrapleural pressure at the apex of the lung is normally_____than at the base?

greater

In the upright position, the alveoli in the upper lung regions are _____ in size compared to the alveoli in the lower lung regions?

larger

In the upright lung, ventilation is much greater in which area?

lower lung regions

When lung complaince decreases, the patient's ventilatory rate generally ____ and the tidal volume ______

increases, decreases

When airway resistance increases, the patient's ventilatory rate generally _____ and the tidal volume _______

decreases, increases

In response to a certain respiratory disorder, the patient may adopt a ventilatory pattern based on the expenditure of ______ rather than the efficiency of __________

energy, ventilation

Apnea is defined as

the complete absence of spontaneous ventilation

Eupnea is defined as

normal, spontaneous breathing

Biot's breathing is defined as

short episodes of rapid, uniformly deep inspirations, followed by 10-30 sec of apnea

Hyperpnea is defined as

increased depth of breathing with or without an increased frequency

Hyperventilation is defined as

an increased alveolar ventilation produced by any ventilatory patter that causes the PACO2 and, therefore, the PaCO2 to decrease

Hypoventilation is defined as

a decreased alveolar ventilation produced by any ventilatory pattern that causes the PACO2 and, therefore, the PaCO2 to increase

Tachypnea is defined as

a rapid breathing rate

Cheyne-stokes breathing is defined as

10-30 sec of apnea, followed by a gradual increase in the volume and frequency of breathing, followed by a gradual decrease in the breathing until another period of apnea occurs

Kussmaul breathing is defined as

(diabetic) both an increased depth and rate of breathing

Orthopnea is defined as

a condition in which an individual is able to breathe most comfortably in the upright position

Dyspnea is defined as

difficulty in breathing, of which the individual is consciously aware.

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