# Ventilation Work Book

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Driving Pressure

### The barometric pressure difference between the mouth pressure and the alveolar pressure is called the

Transairway Pressure

### When the pressure is greater within the airway, the pressure is called

Positive transmural pressure

### When the pressure is greater outside the airway, the pressure is called

Negative transmural pressure

### The difference between the alveolar pressure and the pleural pressure is called the

Transpulmonary pressure (Ptp)

5 mm Hg

### The difference between the alveolar pressure and the body surface pressure is called the

Thransthoracic Pressure (Ptt)

7 mm Hg

4 mm Hg

6 mm Hg

decreases

greater

below

3,6 and 2,4

### Lung compliance is defined as the change in lung _______ per change in _______.

volume and pressure

### If an individual generates an intrapleural pressure of -7 cm H2O during inspiration, and the lungs accept a new volume of 385 ml of air; what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.055 L/cm H2O or (55ml cm H2O)

### If the same patient, four hours later, generates an intrapleural pressure of -5 cm H2O during inspiration, and the lungs accept a new volume of 350 ml of air, what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.07 L/cm H2O or (70 ml cm H2O)

### If a mechanical ventilator generates a +9 cm H2O pressure during inspiration and the lungs accept a new volume of 450 ml of gas, what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.050 L / cm H2O or (50ml/cm H2O)

### If, on the same patient six hours later, the mechanical ventilator generates a + 15 cm H2O pressure and the lungs accept a new volume of 675 ml of gas, what is the compliance of the lungs?

0.045 L/cm H2O or (45ml/cm H2O)

0.1 L/cm H2O

2000 ml (2L)

right

Increased

decreases

### Elastance is defined as

The natural ability of matter to respond directly to force and to return to its original resting position or shape after the external force no longer exists.

### In pulmonary physiology, elastance is defined as ____________and is expressed as_________:

The change in pressure per change in volume, and ΔP / ΔV

low, high

### Hooke's law states that

When a truly elastic body, like a spring, is acted on by 1 unit of force, the elastic body will stretch 1 unit of length, and when acted on by 2 units of force it will stretch 2 units of length, and so forth.

volume, pressure

surface tension

70 dynes/cm

P= 2ST / r

### The mathmatical arrangement of Laplace's law shows that the distending pressure of a liquid bubble is

a. directly proportional to the surface tension of the liquid
b. inversely proportional to the radius of the sphere

### According to Laplace's law, as the surface tension of a liquid bubble increases, the distending pressure required to hold the bubble open ______; and as the radius of the bubble increases, the destending pressure ________.

increases, decreases

### When two different-sized bubbles with the same surface tension are in direct communication what happens

The smaller bubble will empty into the larger bubble

### During the formation of a new bubble, the principles of Laplace's law do not come into effect until the distending pressure of the liquid sphere goes beyond the what?

Critical opening prssure

remains the same

### Pulmonary surfactant is produced by what

alveolar type II cells

### The surfactant molecule has both a hydrophobic end, which means it ____________, and a hydrophilic end, which means it is ________________.

water insoluble (hating), and water soluble (loving)

### In the healthy lung, when the alveolus decreases in size, the amount of surfactant to alveolar surface area ________. This action causes the alveolar surface tension to ___________.

increase, decrease

### It is estimated that the surface tension of the average alveolus varies from ___________ in the small alveolus to about _____________ in the fully distended alveolus.

5-15 dynes, and 50 dynes

### List some general causes of surfactant deficiency

a. acidosis
b. hypoxia
c. hyperoxia
d. atalectasis
e. pulmonary vascular congestion

low

### The term dynamic is defined as the

study of forces in action

### In the lungs, dynamic refers to

the movement in action of gas in and out of the lungs and the pressure changes required to move the gas

### When Poiseuille's law is arranged for flow V, it is written as follows:

V = Δ Pr₄ π / 81 ŋ

### According to Poiseuille's law, and assuming all other variables remain the same what all will happen to flow?

a. as the pressure increases, flow increases
b. as the length of a tube decreases, flow increases
c. as the radius of a tube increases, flow increases
d. as the viscosity decreases, flow increases

2 L/min

14 L/min

256 cm H2O

20 cm H2O

10 L/min

50 L/min

160 cm H2O

10 cm H2O

V = Pr₄
P = V / r₄

### Airway resistance (Raw) is defined as the

pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli divided by flow rate

### Write the equation for airway resistance (Raw) and include the units of measurement:

Raw = ΔP (cm H2O) / V (L/sec)

3cm H2O/L/sec

0.5, 1.5

### Laminar gas flow refers to

a gas flow that is steamlined

### Turbulent gas flow refers to

molecules that move through a tube in a random flow

### Time constant is defined as the

time (in seconds) necessary to inflate a particular lung region to about 60 % of its potential filling capacity

### Lung regions that have an increased airway resistance require

more time to inflate

### Lung regions that have an increased compliance require

more time to inflate

### Which of the following causes lung regions to have a long time constant

a. increased lung compliance
b. increased airway resistance

### Lung regions that have a decreased airway resistance require

less time to inflate

### Lung regions that have a decreased compliance require

less time to inflate

### Which of the following causes lung regions to have a short time constant?

a. decreased lung compliance
b. decreased airway resistance

### Dynamic compliance is defined as the

change in the volume of the lungs divided by the change in the transpulmonary pressure during the time required for one breath.

equal to

remains the same

### Frequency dependent refers to

alveoli distal to an obstruction that do not have enough time to fill their potential filling capacity as the breathing frequency increases.

### The ventilatory pattern consists of the following three components

a. tidal volume
b. ventilatory rate
c. time relationship between inhalation and exhalation

7,9 and 3, 4

15

1:2

### The gas that reaches the alveoli during inspiration is referred to as

Alveolar ventilation

### The gas that does not reach the alveoli during inspiration is referred to as

dead space ventilation

### Anatomic dead space is defined as

the volume of gas in the conducting airways:
nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and lower airways down to, but not including the respiratory bronchioles

130 mL

### Alveolar ventilation is equal to the _________ minus the ________________ multiplied by the ______________

tidal volume, dead space ventilation, breaths per minute

6240 mL

### Alveolar dead space is defined as

an alveolus that is ventilated but not perfused with pulmonary blood

### Physiologic dead space is defined as

the sum of the anatomic dead space and the alveolar dead space

greater

larger

### In the upright lung, ventilation is much greater in which area?

lower lung regions

### When lung complaince decreases, the patient's ventilatory rate generally ____ and the tidal volume ______

increases, decreases

### When airway resistance increases, the patient's ventilatory rate generally _____ and the tidal volume _______

decreases, increases

### In response to a certain respiratory disorder, the patient may adopt a ventilatory pattern based on the expenditure of ______ rather than the efficiency of __________

energy, ventilation

### Apnea is defined as

the complete absence of spontaneous ventilation

### Eupnea is defined as

normal, spontaneous breathing

### Biot's breathing is defined as

short episodes of rapid, uniformly deep inspirations, followed by 10-30 sec of apnea

### Hyperpnea is defined as

increased depth of breathing with or without an increased frequency

### Hyperventilation is defined as

an increased alveolar ventilation produced by any ventilatory patter that causes the PACO2 and, therefore, the PaCO2 to decrease

### Hypoventilation is defined as

a decreased alveolar ventilation produced by any ventilatory pattern that causes the PACO2 and, therefore, the PaCO2 to increase

### Tachypnea is defined as

a rapid breathing rate

### Cheyne-stokes breathing is defined as

10-30 sec of apnea, followed by a gradual increase in the volume and frequency of breathing, followed by a gradual decrease in the breathing until another period of apnea occurs

### Kussmaul breathing is defined as

(diabetic) both an increased depth and rate of breathing

### Orthopnea is defined as

a condition in which an individual is able to breathe most comfortably in the upright position

### Dyspnea is defined as

difficulty in breathing, of which the individual is consciously aware.

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