Define a predicate?
contains verb and gives info on the subject of the sentence. Ex: "Some actors act foolishly on and off the set."
Define a prepositional phrase?
starts with a preposition, cannot stand alone, has no complete subject or predicate. Ex: "In the morning, I ate breakfast with my mother."
5 Comma Rules
1) Use a comma to separate 3 or more items in a series.
2) Use a comma and a conjunction (FANBOYS) to separate 2 complete thoughts.
4) Use a comma to separate a phrase or clause of 3 or more words at the beginning of a sentence.
5) Use a comma to set off a parenthetical element or appositive (like a pause with extra info that if it were to be omitted, the meaning of the sentence wouldn't change.)
6) Use comma to separate coordinative adjectives (descriptive words that come in pairs).
What is apostrophe
Figure of speech that directly addresses or speaks to an abstract quality, a nonhuman, or an individual that is not present.
Repetition of vowel sounds (short or long sounds) within words. Ex: I close my eyes and pretend that I cannot see, the dirt and dust looking back at me.
a correspondence of sounds, typically occurring at the ends of words. Rhyme is described using alphabet letters
the flow or "beat" of the poem. It can be fast, slow, or alternating and helps to create the mood.
Connotation vs. denotation
connotation: the words, images, or emotions associated with words
denotation: dictionary definition of a word
a humorous misuse of words by confusing similar sounding words
Example: "Density has brought me to you."
When analyzing the mood of a poem, what are some things to consider? Think: DIDS
Diction, Imagery, Details, Syntax
Characteristics of plot (mountain diagram)
Exposition: intro to characters, setting, and situation of the story
Rising Action: development of conflicts. Rising action is the longest/bulk of the story
Climax/Crisis: moment of greatest emotion intensity/turning point of story
Falling action: action following the climax
Resolution: the revelation of the conflict's outcome, also known as the denouement, which means wrapping up.
First person POV
narrator is a character that participates in the action.
Effect: we feel closer to the narrator/character; we do not get thoughts or feelings of others as much as the narrator. We get a complete knowledge of the narrator's experience.
the narrator is a detached observer who is unidentified.
Effect: readers must draw their own conclusions on what characters are feeling or thinking; it is like a camera following the story.
Omniscient Third Person POV
narrator is all-knowing.
Effect: narrator knows everything about the other characters and how they are feeling; may provide his/her opinions about the events or let the reader draw their own conclusions.
Limited Omniscient POV
narrator knows the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of only one character. The narrator is not part of the action and is sharing his or her limited knowledge with the reader, thus leaving some things unknown.
To make it appear that time is going by quickly and to make our hearts race, an author might...
use short sentences or long sentences with many short phrases, use many short phrases connected by commas, or use repetition of words.
To make time slow down and build suspense, an author might...
use punctuation like commas or semicolons to make the reader pause, use long sentences full of descriptive phrases, or use words or phrases that slow a sentence
used to cover details not discussed in exposition. It gives readers more insight into characters by showing their personalities and backgrounds.
shows an event that will occur in the future, and then goes back to the current story to show how the characters got to that point.
follow the stories of separate characters; it is used to build interest and give additional details about their characters as they react differently to conflicts they encounter.
used to tell several short stories within the plot of the overall story; authors can go into specific detail about key events and reveal more about the characters through their reactions to conflict and their interactions with each other.
In Medias Res
"Come late; leave early". Don't tell your audience everything, let them figure it out for themselves.
provides break from the narrative; by revealing characters' dreams, the author gives insight into their actions and identity.
This is where one generates ideas for the story, plans how it will go and organizes the structure, and chooses words that would best make the story come to life. Ideas, Voice, Organization
This is where you are trying to weave your ideas into a complete story using voice, word choice, and sentence fluency. Ideas, Voice, Sentence Fluency, Word Choice
Revise: look over your writing and see how you did building the ideas into a complete story. Check to see if the voice matches the story you tell, or if the organization makes sense. This is also a great time to share your story with someone else to get feedback about your writing.
Editing is when you check for proper use of conventions
Ideas, Voice, Organization, Sentence Fluency, Word Choice
Edit step only uses conventions
Make any improvements needed based on revision and editing. Check one last time to make sure your paper is free from conventions errors—make corrections as needed.
What are subordinate conjunctions?
A subordinate conjunction links short phrases and descriptive phrases together and contributes to sentence fluency. Some subordinate conjunctions are: After, Before, Once, Though, As, Even though, If, Because, etc.
What is an absolute phrase?
It is a descriptive phrase that modify entire sentences. * an absolute phrase is not a complete sentence*
What are temporal transitions?
Bring readers from beginning to end.
Relationship: With regard to, coupled with, in the same way
Shift in setting: for the time being, earlier, meanwhile, in the distance
Suspense building: suddenly, little by little, out of the blue, all of a sudden
Four rules of dialogue
All dialogue placed inside quotation marks.
Ending punctuation marks placed INSIDE quotation marks.
When a quoted statement is divided, the second part is not capitalized.
Start a new paragraph for each new speaker.
highly structured poem with 14 lines broken down into 3 quatrains and 1 couplet.a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g
What does the first quatrain of a sonnet usually contain?
An exposition of the main theme and main metaphor.
What does the second quatrain of a sonnet usually contain?
Theme and metaphor extended or complicated; often, some imaginative example is given.
What does the third quatrain of a sonnet usually contain?
A twist or conflict, often introduced by a "but", very often leading off the ninth line.
What does the couplet of a sonnet usually contain?
Summarizes and leaves the reader with a new, concluding image.
a form of extended metaphor with the following qualities:
• Objects, people, and actions in the story represent something more than their literal meaning. Characters often represent some abstract quality like betrayal, goodness, greed, joy, jealousy, etc.
• The underlying meaning is usually social, political, or religious.
Parable vs. Fable
Parable: very short and simple story, focusing on one or two characters and a specific conflict or issue through which they must work. Parables are meant to instruct their audiences on some moral lesson.
Fable: short story with animal characters that talk and act like human beings.