___ (short) are the major source of energy for the body. they're stored in the liver and in muscles in the form of glycogen.
Carbs are stored in the liver and in muscles in the form of ___.
our daily intake of carbs should be __-__% of our calories.35-55% complex ones--starches--like whole grains, potatoes, rice, beans, and vegetables. 10% or less should be simple carbs--sugars--like pop, cookies, fruit drinks, ice cream, and candy.
___ is the part of the plant food not digested in the small intestine (where most other foods are digested and absorbed into the bloodstream). It's a group of widely different compounds with varied effects on the body.
___ fiber comes from the cell walls of plants and isn't digested by the body. It prevents constipation. It's found in whole-wheat bran, lentils,
___ fiber paces the absorbtion of carbs, preventing dramatic shifts in blood sugar levels. Most plant foods contain both kinds of fiber.
___ carbs should be 35-55% of our daily caloric intake. They include the starches and many vital nutrients like vitamins, minerals, water, and fiber.
we should eat about __-__ grams of fiber daily (either kind)
the ___ ___ is a scale that measures the extent to which a food affects blood-glucose (sugar) levels. A food that quickly raises blood-glucose levels is said to have a high __ (e.g. refined flour). Low __ foods include brown rice, sweet potatoes, whole-wheat breads, beans, bran, apples, yogurt, etc. These foods make you feel fuller.
___ is the major substance used to build and repair tissue, maintain chemical balance, and regulate the formation of hormones, antibodies, and enzymes.
__-__% of our daily calories should be protein (for me it's about 48g). Good sources of protein include legumes, whole grains, pastas, rice, and seeds (these are also great sources of fiber)
Ketosis is a buildup of poisonous ___ ___. These are toxic wastes from fats burned for energy in the absence of carbs. Ketosis causes fatigue and nausea and overtaxes the kidneys. (So you need to have more than fats as a source of energy); they work best with carbs.
___ fats are primarily in foods of animal origin (e.g. red meats, cheese, whole milk, hot dogs, lunch meats, shortening). Also, all animal fats contain cholesterol.
___ fats come mostly from plant foods and are healthier to consume than saturated (which is mostly from animals). They lower total cholesterol and bad LDL and can be hydrogenated.e.g. corn, soybean, sunflower oils, and tub margarines. Sse in small amounts (it's not preferred).
___ fats also come from plant foods and help to decrease total and LDL cholesterol as well as raise HDLs. it's the preferred choice of fat, but use in moderation. it can be hydrogenated. e.g. canola, olive, and peanut oil, peanut butter (non-hydrogenated).
___ is not a true fat, but rather a fatlike waxy substance found in animal tissue. you should have less than 300 mg per day.
___ is the process by which mono- and polyunsaturated oils are turned into a solid unhealthy saturated fat. it adds hydrogen atoms to the fats to preserve shelf life and texture.
Also known as trans fats, ___-___ acids are fatty acid molecules that have been rerranged and converted. They're terrible.
___ are the organic catalysts needed to initiate the body's complex metabolic functions.
___-soluble vitamins (e.g. A, K, D, and E) are transported and stored by the body's fat cells and liver (not excreted)
___-soluble vitamins (e.g. C and Bs) remain in the body only a short time and are excreted.
___ are inorganic substances that are critical to many enzyme functions in the body
___minerals are needed in large doses (more than 100mg daily) and include clacium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and sodium
___ minerals are needed in smaller amounts and include iron, sinc, copper, iodine, fluoride, and selenium.
inadequate supply of ___ is a major factor contributing to osteoporosis, an age-related condition of insufficient bone mass. Especially before age 25 (when you reach your peak bone mass) calcium intake must be high. it should be 1300 for ages 9-18 and 1000mg daily for 19-50.
AKA "brittle bones", ___ is an age-related condition of insufficient bone mass. It can't be prevented, only delayed but lots of calcium before age 25 and after (eating it every day), vitamin D, regular vigorous exercise, not smoking. 10 million Americans over 50 have this.
___ is a bone density that is lower than normal. 34 million Americans over 50 have this. it's less severe than osteoporosis.
Adults should consume no more than ___mg of sodium daily.
___ is the most important nutrient because it serves as the medium in whcih the other nutrients are absorbed.
Antioxidants whose name means "plant-chemicals," ___ are food components that are present in foods such as fruits, veggies, grains, legumes, seeds, garlic, licorice, soy, and green tea. They've been associated with prevention/treatment of at least 4 of the leading causes of death in the US: cancer, CVD, diabetes, and hypertension. They help ward off chronic disease.
___ are a group of phytochemicals that have a structure similar to the body's own hormones. They're found in lots of soy stuff and may reduce the long-term harmful effects of the body's own hormones (which can lead to cancers)
___ (e.g. phytochemicals, carotenoids, Vitamins C and E) are compounds that neutralize free radical chemical reactions, thus suppressing cell deterioration and slowing the aging process. They also come to the aid of every cell in the body that faces an ongoing barrage of damages which are caused by: normal aging and oxygenation processes (living and breathing), envi. pollution, chemicals and pesticides, additives in processed foods, stress, and sun radiation.
___ ___ are singlet oxygen molecules that damage our cells and tissues and are made as aging and exposure to life occur. Antioxidants neutralize chemical reactions with these.
Variety, Moderation, Balance
___, ___, and ___ are 3 words that encapsulate "Good Nutrition" according to typical nutritionists.
foods high in ___ ___ provide substantial nutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, fiber, etc.) with relatively few calories, fats, and saugr. E.g. fruits, veggies, legumes, and whole grains.
___ is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it. It comes in the forms of acute (short-term) and chronic (continuous)
___ stress is the short-term response to imminent danger. It usually passes quickly but if it occurs a lot can cause health damages.
___ stress is continous and prolonged overload levels of stress that an individual can't control.
The body adapts to various kinds of ___ such as physical (illness, acidents, lack of sleep, noise) or psychological or emotional (pressures with school or problems with loved ones).
pleasant stress (e.g. from holidays or marriage)
unpleasant stress (e.g. from getting an F or a breakup)
___ stress is a point at which eustress and distress are intense enough to motivate and physically prepare us to perform optimally yet not intense emough to cause the body to overract or sustain farmful effects.
The ___ ___ is also known as the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) and has three stages: fight or flight, resistance, and exhaustion.
the ___ ___ stage of stress (AKA the fight-or-flight response) is when the body prepares to cope with a stressor. it's a primative survival method that used to give humans ways to cope with or death responses.
the stage of ___ is stage two of stress response, which the body actively resists and attempts to cope with the stressor. Eventually the body loses the ability to keep up with the deamnd and wears out (stage of exhaustion)
the stage of ___ is stage 3 of the stress response when the body simply wears out, immunity breaks down, organs malfunction, and disease or death can occur.
___ ___ occurs whenan individual assesses a situation (or stressor) as threatening regardless of its actual threat. Control this (essential for stress response) by evaluating whether or not it's something to gear up to fret, flee, or fight about.
___ ("mind-body") diseases are physical ailments that are mentally induced. Not dealing with chronic stress or having long stretches of acute stress can lead to this.
___ is a specialized branch of medicine that studies the mind-body connection.
immune, nervous, CVD, digestive, skin
Long-term stress suppress your ___ system, negatively affects your ___ system, hurts the ___ (abb.) system by increased BP, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, affects the ___ system by causing gastrointenstinal problems, and worses ___ conditions as well as migraines.
___ ___ are the events or interactions in your daily life that you find bothersome, annoying, or (-) in some way.These too can have negative effects on health. THe way you perceive these determines how detrimental/big a deal they'll be.
___ ___ are positive events that make us feel good and are conterparts to daily hassels.
Type _ personalities are characterized by time urgency and impatience. The key problem with them is the high stress level their body is constantly under.
type _ personalities are relaxed, casual, and patient.
Type _ personalities are "distressed"
___ ___ are people that are apparently healthy but candidates for stress-related heart attacks or strokes b/c of the extreme reactions they have in response to daily stress.
___ is an ability to resist the ill effects of stress. the hardy have strong immune systems and are optimists
Type _ personalities are from people who is hardy soul that used to be type A. The 5 traits of a hardy/type _ person are Control, Commitment, Challenge, Choices in lifestyle, and Connectedness
Control, commitment, challenge, choices in lifestyle, connectedness
The 5 traits of a Type C personality are ___ (seek active solutions to the problem), ___ (meaningful involvement in life), ___ (view life as this rather than a threat), ___ __ ___ (these enchance health and reduce stress), and ___ (actively involved with others)
the ___ ___ is a skill for stress management that are healing chemical changes in the body from effort and training in the use of meditation.
mindfulness of meditation
___ __ ___ (i.e. non-mantra meditation) is the practice of paying attention to what is happening to you from moment to moment. Includes being mindful, slowing down, doing one thing at a time, and bringing full awareness to both the activity at hand and to inner experiences of it.
___ allows us to play out the inappropriate fight-or-flight response, use the muslces that are tensed for action, and reduce the adrenaline being pumped into the bloodstream (aerobic is best)
___ is a mental exercise that affects body processes, producing physical benefits. It's the second strategy for relaxation techniques against stress. It should be practiced for 10-20 minutes twice a day.
___ meditation (TM) is a relaxation technique popularized by the Maharishi.
The "___ training and injury" technique of relaxation uses mental concentration exercises to bring about sensations of warmth and heaviness in the limbs and torso and then uses relaxing images to expand the relaxed state.
___ relaxation emphasizes the relaxation of voluntary skeletal muscles (the muscles which you have control over). It was made by the physician Edmund Jacobson and, while helpful, doesn't produce the relaxation response.
___ yoga (AKA physical yoga) uses various exercises/postures (called asanas) with proper breathing rhytm to relieve tension and inflexibility in the body.
___ training is a technique in which machines measure certain physiological process in the body and convert this info to an understandable form for a person. Proponents of this think that by knowing how your body is reacting you can control better.
good ___ is as important as exercise and good nutrition to cope with stresses and keep the body functioning in top form physically, mentally, and spiritually.
___ is a strategy of dealing with stress that means consciously reinterpreting a situation in a more positive light. It goes back to perceptions and control.
___-___ ___ includes muscle, bone, body fluids, and organs. Your body is composed of this and body fat.
___-___ mass, or muscle mass, are your muscles (which are part of fat-free mass)
___ fat is either essential fat or storage fat
___ fat is required for normal body functioning and is stored in major body oragns and tissues.
___ fat is the extra fat that accumulates in adipose cells (or fat cells) around internal organs and beneath the skin surface to insulate, pad, and protext the body from trauma and extreme cold.
being ___ is when body weight is in excess of recommended range for good health
___ refers to having an excessive accumulation of body fat.
___ (abb.) is used as a method of clasifying overweight and obesity.
one pound of body fat equals ___ calories of stored energy
a ___ is a measure of energy. there are 3500 in a lb of body fat.
the body increases fat storage by increasing the ___ of fat cells and the ___ of fat cells (adipose cells)
___-___ theory maintains that every individual is programmed to be a certain weight and that the body regulates itself to maintain that "set" weight.
___ metabolic rate is the energy requirement needed at rest to sustain vital functions of the body.The more muscle mass you have, the higher the BMR.
___ ___ is the repeated loss and regaining of body weight. Sometimes called the yo-yo syndrome when it's the result of low-calorie or fad dieting.
Hunger is an actual physical need for food, while ___ is a desire for food that is usually triggered by anxiety, boredom, stress, habit, or the mere availability of food.
___ ___ is the use of techniques to enchance awareness or consciousness of a behavior and subsequently alter that behavior. For me they include not eating while reading, brushing teeth immediately after eating, eat slowly, chew thoroughly, put utensils down b/tw bites, eat with L hand, and cut food insto smaller pieces
___ ___ are disturbances in eating behavior that jeopardizes a person's physical or psychosocial health.
___ ___ is characterized by a compulsive need to binge and purge.
___ ___ is a physical disorder in which self-inflicted starvation leads to drastic loss of weight
___ eating disorder is the most common. It's binging and is accompanied by a sense of lack of control or a feeling that one cannot stop.
___ eating includes the varied types of behaviors (e.g. dapples in the other very serious eating disorders).
___ diseases are related to an inactive lifestyple, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes.
___ ___ is the ability of the body to function at optimal effeciency
___ ___ is the ability of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to deliver oxygen and essential nutrients to the working muscles and remove waste products during vigorous physical activity.
___ ___ is the ability of a muscle to exert one maximal force against resistance.
___ ___ is the ability of a muscle to exert repeated force against resistance or to sustain muscular contraction. it's characterized by long duration, low intensity.
___ is movement of a joint through a full range or motion
___ ___ is the amount of body fat in proportion to fat-free weight.
___ stretching uses jerking/bounching motions and shouldn't be used b/c it could strain cold muscles
___ stretching is gentle and held for 10 to 30 seconds. it's best.
A ___-___ ___ is an exercise using the same muscles that will be used in the conditioning bout but at a lowered intensity level (e.g. joggers should do a short period of walking/slow jogging before running at normal intensity)
the ___ ___ is the main part of the workout: 20-30 minutes or more.
___ ___ is a gradual increase in physical activity, working a muscle group or body system beyond accustomed levels.
the principle of ___ means that only the muscles or body systems being exercised will show beneficial changes
the principle of ___ states that changes occuring with exercise are reversible and that if a person stops exercising, the body will decondition and adapt to the decreased activity level (e.g. gradual loss of fitness begins within 48 hours of not exercising).
the principle of ___ ___ states that people vary in their ability to develop fitness compontents.
___ __ involves participating in two or more types of exercise in one session or in alternate sessions for balanced fitness.
Maximal oxygen uptake
___ ___ ___ (VO2max or aerobic capacity) is the greatest amount of oxygen that can be taken in and used by the body during high-intensity exercise. Cardiorespiratory endurance is often expressed in terms of this.
___ (aerobic capacity or maximal oxygen uptake) is the greatest amount of oxygen that can be taken in and used by the body during high-intensity exercise. Cardiorespiratory endurance is often expressed in terms of this.
___ ___ (VO2max or maximal oxygen uptake) is the greatest amount of oxygen that can be taken in and used by the body during high-intensity exercise. Cardiorespiratory endurance is often expressed in terms of this.
___ ___ is the volume of blood pumped per minute
the ___ ___ is the sum of the physiological adaptations to exercise (AKA the total beneficial changes)