Project Scope Management Knowledge Area

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What is Project Scope Management?

Project Scope Management includes all processes required to ensure that a project includes all work the work required and only the work required to complete the project.

Name the processes included in Project Scope Management Knowledge Area

"There are five processes included in Project Scope Management:
1) Collect Requirements - define and document stakeholders' needs and requirements to make project objectives.
2) Define Scope - Developing more detail and definitiion on project deliverables and associated project activity.
3) Create WBS - Subdividing project deliverables and related scope nto smaller and smaller more manageable components.
4) Verify Scope - formalizing the process of accepting completed deliverables.
5) Control Scope - Monitor scope and manage changes to project baseline.

Name two types of project scope and describe how they are measured.

"The two types of project scope are:
Product scope that refers to the features or functions that characterize a product, service, or result. Product scope is measured against the product requirements.
Project scope that refers to the work required to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Project scope is measured against the baseline described in the Project Management Plan.

What does the process Collect Requirements address?

Collect Requirements refers to the process to define and document stakeholders' needs to meet project objectives. Collect Requirements starts with an analysis of the information contained in the Project Charter and Stakeholder Register.

What are the Inputs to Collect Requirements?

"The Inputs to Collect Requirements are:
.1 Project Charter - Provides high level project and product scope description.
.2 Stakeholder Register - Identifies stakeholder characteristics and needs.

What are the Tools and Techniques to Collect Requirements? Part I

"Part I - The Tools and Techniques of Collect Requirements are:
.1 Interviews
.2 Focus groups - Form of expert judgement. Groups of experts and prequalifed stakeholders.
.3 Facilitated workshops - Requirements workshops of prequalified stakeholders and experts to address requirements.
.4 Group cre ativity techniques - Examples:
1) Brainstorming.
2) Nominal group technique - enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization.
3) The Delphi Technique. Select group of experts answers questionnaires and provides
feedback regarding the responses from each round. The responses are only available to the facilitator to maintain anonymity.
4) Idea/mind mapping. Ideas created through individual brainstorming are consolidated into a
single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding, and generate new ideas.
5) Affinity diagram. This technique allows large numbers of ideas to be sorted into groups for
review and analysis.

What are the Tools and Techniques to Collect Requirements? Part II

"Part II - The Tools and Techniques of Collect Requirements are:
.5 Group decision making techniques - Group decision making is the assessment of mutiliple alternatives. There are multiple methods of reaching a group decision. Examples:
1) Unanimity. Everyone agrees on a single course of action.
2) Majority. Support from more than 50% of the members of the group.
3) Plurality. The largest block in a group decides even if a majority is not achieved.
4) Dictatorship. One individual makes the decision for the group.
.6 Questionnaires and surveys
.7 Observations
Job Shadowing - external observation while subject performs their job.
Participant observer - observer actually performs the process or procedure to experience how is done and possibly uncover some hidden requirements.
.8 Prototypes - provide a working model of the deliverable before actually building it; allows stakeholders to experiment and gain better understanding without actually building or completing the item.

What are the Outputs from Collect Requirements?

"The Output of Collective Requirements is:
Requirements Documentation - Describes how individual project requirements met business needs. Start out at high level and become progressively more detailed as project continues.
Requirements Management Plan - documents how requirements will be analyzed, documented,
and managed throughout the project.
Requirements Traceability Matrix - links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project life cycle.

What is .the Requirements Traceability Matrix?

"The Requirements Traceability Matrix is a table that links requirements to their origin, traces
them throughout the project life cycle, and ensures that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It tracks all requirement attributes throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. The matrix provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

What is the Define Scope process?

Define Scope Process develops and documents a detailed description of the project and its deliverables. The scope definition builds upon requirements and assumptions established during project Initiation and builds detail and information as the project progresses through progressive elaboration.

What are the Define Scope Inputs?

"Inputs to the Define Scope Process are:
.1 Project charter - provides high level description of the project and its deliverables. Contains project approval requirements.
.2 Requirements Documentation - Describes how individual project requirements met business needs. Start out at high level and become progressively more detailed as project continues.
.3 Organizational process assets - Examples:
Policies, procedures, and templates for a project scope statement,
Project files from previous projects, and
Lessons learned from previous phases or projects.

What are the Define Scope Tools and Techniques?

".1 Expert judgment - Expert judgment is often used to analyze the information needed to develop the project scope
statement.
.2 Product analysis - includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis.
.3 Alternatives identification - technique used to generate different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
.4 Facilitated workshops - Requirements workshops of prequalified stakeholders and experts to address requirements.

What are the Define Scope Outputs?

"The Outputs of the Define Scope process:
.1 Project scope statement - The project scope statement describes, in detail, the project's deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. The project scope statement also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders.
.2 Project document updates - Examples:
Stakeholder register,
Requirements documentation, and
Requirements traceability matrix.

Describe the Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) process?

"Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable
components. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project, and represents the work specified
in the current approved project scope statement.

What are the Inputs to Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)?

"The Inputs to the Create WBS process are:
.1 Project scope statement - The project scope statement describes, in detail, the project's deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables. The project scope statement also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders.
.2 Requirements Documentation - Describes how individual project requirements met business needs. Start out at high level and become progressively more detailed as project continues.
.3 Organizational process assets - Examples:
Policies, procedures, and templates for the WBS,
Project files from previous projects, and
Lessons learned from previous projects.

What is are the Tools and Techniques of the Create WBS process?

"There is only one Tool and Technique in the Create WBS process.
.1 Decomposition - Decomposition is the subdivision of project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until the work and deliverables are defined to the work package level.

What are the Outputs to the create WBS?

"The Outputs of the Create WBS process are:
.1 WBS - a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team, to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables, with each descending level of the WBS representing an increasingly detailed definition of the project work.
.2 WBS dictionary - The WBSdictionary provides more detailed descriptions of the components in the WBS, including work packages and control accounts.
.3 Scope baseline - component of the project management plan. Inclues:
Project scope statement
WBS
WBS Dictionary
.4 Project document updates.

Describe the Verify Scope process?

"Verify Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. Verifying scope
includes reviewing deliverables with the customer or sponsor to ensure that they are completed satisfactorily and
obtaining formal acceptance of deliverables by the customer or sponsor. Scope verification differs from quality
control in that scope verification is primarily concerned with acceptance of the deliverables, while quality control
is primarily concerned with correctness of the deliverables and meeting the quality requirements specified for
the deliverables.

What are the Verify Scope Inputs?

"The Inputs for the Verify Scope process are:
.1 Project Management Plan Scope Baseline.
.2 Requirements Documentation - Describes how individual project requirements met business needs. Start out at high level and become progressively more detailed as project continues.
.3 The Requirements Traceability Matrix is a table that links requirements to their origin and tracks all requirement attributes throughout the project life cycle.
.4 Validated deliverables - Validated deliverables have been completed and checked for correctness by the Perform Quality Control process.

What are the Tools and Techniques used in Verify Scope process?

The only tool and technique under Verify Scope Process is Inspection. Inspection is the examination of a work product to determine whether it confirms to documented requirements and standards. Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and verifying to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria. Inspections are sometimes called reviews, product reviews, audits, and walkthroughs. In some application areas, these different terms have narrow and specific meanings.

What are the Outputs of the Verify Scope Process?

"The Outputs of Verify Scope are:
Accepted Deliverables - Oeliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off and approved by the
customer or sponsor. Formal documentation received from the customer or sponsor acknowledging
formal stakeholder acceptance of the project's deliverables is forwarded to the Close Project or
Phase process.
Change Request - Those completed dellverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with
the reasons for non-acceptance. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair.
The change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change
Control process.
Project Document Updates - Updated documents as a result of the Verify Scope process include any
documents that define the product or report status on product completion.

What does the Control Scope process involve?

"Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes
to the scope baseline. Controlling the project scope ensures all requested changes and recommended corrective
or preventive actions are processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

What are the Inputs to the Control Scope Process?

"The Inputs to the Control Scope process include:
.1 Project management plan
Scope baseline
Scope Management Plan -
Change Management Plan - defines the change management process and its implementation..
Configuration Management Plan - The configuration management plan defines those configurable items
that require formal change control, and the process for controlling changes to such items.
Requirements Management Plan - includes how requirements activities will be planned, tracked, and reported and how changes will be initiated. It also describes how impacts will be analyzed and the authorization levels required to approve these changes
.2 Work performance information
.3 Requirements documentation
.4 Requirements traceability matrix
.5 Organizational process assets
Existing formal and informal scope control.
Monitoring and reporting methods.

What are the Tools and Technique of the Control Scope Process?

"The only Tool and Technique for the Control Scope Process is Variance Analysis.
Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original
scope baseline. Variance Analysis involves determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.

What are the Outputs of the Control Scope Process?

"The Outputs of the Control Scope Process are:
Work Performance Measurements - includes planned vs. actual scope and technical performance performance
measurements and is documented and communicated to stakeholders.
Organizational Process Assets Updates -
Causes of variances,
Corrective action chosen and the reasons, and
Other types of lessons learned from project scope control
Change Requests -
Project Management Plan Updates - Scope, WBS, Cost and Schedule baseline.
Project Document Updates - Requirements documentation, Requirements Traceability Matrix.

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