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place on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate.

Catalyst

a substance that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Cellular Respiration

the energy-harvesting life process mediated by numerous enzymes.

Coenzyme

organic cofactors; some vitamins play coenzyme roles.

Cofactors

substances that must be present for certain enzymes to function; they bind with the enzyme.

Competitive Inhibitors

substances that prevent an enzyme from functioning; they mimic the enzyme's normal substrate.

Denaturation

changes to an enzyme's (or other proteins) shape that prevents it from functioning normally; heat and pH are common agents.

Energy of Activation

the amount of energy that must be added to a molecule before that molecule will react.

Synthesis Reactions

chemical reactions that build up new molecules from smaller substrate molecules.

Enzyme

a protein catalyst that lowers the energy of activation required for chemical reactions in living organisms.

Enzyme Pathway

a series of enzymes that work in sequence to convert a substrate molecule into specific end products.

Enzyme-Substrate Complex

the molecule formed when an enzyme and its substrate unite.

Hydrolysis

a chemical reaction in which water molecules joins the substrate in the formulation of the products.

Induced Fit Model

model of enzyme action which states that the shapes of an enzyme and its substrate are very similar but flexible and that this flexibility enables the enzyme to put stress on bonds within the substrate once the enzyme-substrate complex is formed.

Lock-and-Key
Model

model of enzyme action which states that the shapes of an enzyme and its substrate are so precisely related that they can only fit with one another.

Noncompetitive Inhibitors

substances that prevent an enzyme from functioning; they attach to an enzyme at some place other than the active site and distort the active site so that the normal substrate cannot attach.

Substrate

a molecule that is the beginning point of a chemical reaction.

Products

the molecule or molecules resulting from a chemical reaction.

Inorganic Catalyst

a catalyst that does not contain carbon and hydrogen, and is from the earth's crust.

Organic Catalyst

a catalyst that contains carbon and hydrogen, and is produced by a living thing.

Exothermic Reaction

heat is released from the chemical reaction, therefore, the surroundings will increase.

Endothermic Reaction

heat is absorbed into the chemical reaction, the surrounding temperature will get cooler.

Feedback Inhibition

another name for a noncompetitive inhibitor.

Inorganic Cofactor

a cofactor that doesn't contain carbon nor hydrogen and is a mineral.

Organic Cofactor

a cofactor that contains carbon and hydrogen and is made from living things; vitamins.

Law of Conservation of Matter

law that states matter can not be created nor destroyed.

4 Factors Affecting Enzyme Action

substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, temperature, and pH.

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